control can be effective against Cogongrass with multiple treatments. In the United States, it is naturalized in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississip… It is considered to be the worst perennial grass weed of southern and east Asia. Deep plowing may be effective in the removal of cogongrass if the plow reaches up to 6 i… Cogon grass is a perennial, rhizomatous grass that is somewhat variable in appearance (Ladion, 2000). treatment with Glyphosate herbicides can control leaf growth, but up to 2 I. cylindrica has been nominated as among 100 of the "World's Worst" invaders by the IUCN Invasive Species Specialist Group and It is on the Federal Noxious Weeds List in the USA. In this study, cogon grass was made as a material in paper making. Not listed as a noxious weed by the state or governments in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Cogongrass: Cogon Grass: Satintail: Blood Grass: Also sold as: Red Baron: General Plant Information ; Plant Habit: Grass/Grass-like: Life cycle: Perennial: Sun Requirements: Full Sun to Partial Shade: Water Preferences: Mesic Dry Mesic Dry: Minimum cold hardiness: Zone 5a -28.9 °C (-20 °F) to … Cogongrass is a rapidly growing perennial grass that is tolerant of shade, poor soils, high salinity, moisture and drought. These are dispersed by wind over long distances. Invasive Species Institute. Although it does not tolerate cool temperatures, it … Research has shown that burning cogongrass followed by a 4 to 6 week regrowth period enhances control with both glyphosate and imazapyr. Biological Control of Cogongrass: Progress and Perspectives James P. Cuda1, William A. Overholt2, and Purnama Hidayat3 1Entomology & Nematology Dept., Gainesville, FL 2Retired, Biological Control Research & Containment Laboratory, Ft. Pierce, FL 3Bogor Agricultural University, West Java, Indonesia IFAS-FTGA Great CEU Roundup, McCarty GOO1, 25 July 2018 & Flory, L. (2015, January). control methods (pulling, cultivation, etc.) Has a weak and shallow root system.Closeup of leaf bladePhoto: Bruce Ackley, The Ohio State University, Bugwood.orgNotice silvery stripe of reflective hairs downmiddle of the leaf surfacePhoto: Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org This document provides a plan for cogongrass management in perennial grass pastures, as well … Imperata cylindrica (satintail). As Imperata cylindrica is so widespread this is unlikely to be possible in many instances. - 4 ft. 0 in. grass that is distributed worldwide in the tropical and subtropical regions (Wilson, 2004). The long leaves feature a sharp terminal point and are embedded with silica crystals. Life Cycles of Rice Field Weeds and their Management in Malaysia. If prevention is no longer possible, it is best to treat the weed infestations when they are small to prevent them from establishing (early detection and rapid response). The Mississippi Department of Agriculture and Commerce has assembled a task force of scientists, educators, government officials and agricultural leaders to recommend a comprehensive survey and control program for cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) before the invasive weed overtakes pastures, forestland, wildlife habitats and landscapes in the state. Some components of an integrated management approach are introduced below. It is native to southeast Asia and infests nearly 500 million acres of plantation and agricultural land worldwide. It grows from 0.6-3 m tall. Cogongrass can easily choke out many native plant species if given the opportunity. Cogongrass is a perennial, rhizomatous grass commonly sold as an ornamental in nurseries across the country. and Eupatorium odoratum L. Weed Research Project R 2552, 1971-1973. (2010, August 21). We have a fact sheet available that can be found here. In southern climates, flowering occurs intermittently year-round. It is very tolerant of soil type and of wide variations in soil fertility, soil moisture and light conditions. Retrieved from https://www.fs.fed.us/invasivespecies/speciesprofiles/documents/cogon-grass.pdf View PDF, Texas infestations (home gardens, etc.). obs.) Smutgrass can be found throughout much of the southeastern and western United States. Dickens, R. and Moore, G.M. Cogongrass (2003). Cogongrass can invade pastures, natural or planted forests, riparian areas, highway rights-of-way, urban areas, and wetlands. Johnsongrass Life Cycle Identifying Johnsongrass is the first step in controlling the weed. Studies on Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. Roots are up to 1.2 m deep, but 0.4 m is typical in sandy soil. The upper surface is hairy near the base of the plant while the underside is usually hairless. The main vein is a lighter colour than the rest of the leaf and tends to be nearer to one side of the leaf. When dry, Cogongrass poses a significant fire risk. Disclaimer | southern forests. In its ornamental form it poses little threat to native flora, but it can easily become invasive if given the right conditions (excessive shade, water, well-drained soil). Bermuda grass is also the most common grass … Details on possible control methods for I. cylindrica are available in the CABI Invasive Species Compendium. GRAMA | ... Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) are two of the most common. (eds) (1999). Cogon grass, cotton wool grass, silver spike, sword grass, ialang, lusanke (Luganda), mtimbi (Kiswahili), ol'ungu (Maasai) Yes, cogon grass should be eradicated. use. Control is generally best applied to the least infested areas before dense infestations are tackled. and Uganda (Lyons and Miller 1999). Whole Plant Traits: Plant Type: Ornamental Grasses and Sedges Weed Habit/Form: Clumping Erect Spreading Growth Rate: Rapid Maintenance: High; Cultural Conditions: Light: Ivens GW, 1975. Imperata For this year, it is a little too late, but is possible if we do not have a frost event. Leaves: Long blade-like leaves grow up in clumps from a central base. It is also thought to negatively impact upon biodiversity as it is an inferior forage grass. I. brasiliensis differs from I. cylindrica in terms of the number of stamens per flower; I. brasiliensis has one stamen whereas I. cylindrica has two. Imperata Management for Smallholders. ICRAF (1999). Comment about this page? Agronomy Journal 66: 187-188. The flowers and the roots are antibacterial, diuretic, febrifuge, sialagogue, styptic and tonic.. )is a warm-season perennial grass species found throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world (Hubbard 1944). 1977). Tsukuba, Japan: Tropical Agriculture Research Center. Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. Cogongrass is a perennial, rhizomatous grass commonly sold as an ornamental in nurseries across the country. Beauv) is commonly known as Cogon Grass and used in Ayurveda for the treatment of various u rinary disorders. [PDF file]. Consistent follow-up work is required for sustainable management. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2351989414000626, Global are effective only on small Xyleborus glabratus was first detected in 2002 and is one of the 10 ambrosia beetle species in t… cylindrica (L.) Beauv. We recognise the support from the National Museums of Kenya, Tropical Pesticides Research Institute (TPRI) - Tanzania and Makerere University, Uganda. Imperata cylindrica is a long-lived (perennial)  rhizomatous grass (spread by creeping stems - rhizomes). Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica). (1974). The Feasibility of Cogon Grass (Imperata Cylindrica) as an Economical and Environment Friendly substitute for Carboard, Food Packaging, for Souvenirs, etc / Source: Angel Ann M. Concepcion Justine Ace York C. Barnardo / Dept of Science and Technology (15) Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) roots as a potent agent in lowering uric acid / Google Doc There are Imperata arundinacea Cirollo; Lagurus cylindricusL. Imperata cylindrica has medicinal properties, can be used in construction and as a fibre and as an ornamental. Polembang, Indonesia: Indonesian Rubber Research Institute, and Chatham, UK: Natural Resources Institute. (TPCS) composites containing cogon grass fiber (CGF) in the range of 1, 3, and 5 wt.%. Imperata cylindrica is a prolific seed producer with one plant capable of producing up to 3000 seeds. Privacy Statement |. Seed heads range from 2 to 8 inches in length a… Paper. In cultivated ornamental versions, leaves are a deep red color. Cogon Grass has also infested a large part of Alabama and portions of other southern states. Flowering typically occurs in spring or after disturbance of the sward (mowing, etc.). The leaves are about 2 cm wide near the base of the plant and narrow to a sharp point at the top; the margins are finely toothed and are embedded with sharp silica crystals. biodiversity. In spring or summer, the plants produce fluffy white seed heads. several species of fungi are currently under investigation for possible future Mechanical Phone: (385) 468-4100, TTY | It goes by many popular names: wolly grass, blady grass, kura-kura, Bai Mao Gen, cotton wool grass, alang-alang, kunai grass, and—perhaps the one you’re most likely to recognize—cogon grass. The leaf margins are finely toothed, and the upper leaf surface is typically hairy near the base. Itoh K ed, 1991. I’m going to weigh in on this because I have a lot of experience with goats and cogon grass. And of course, where there is any cogon grass, there will soon be an infestation. Cogongrass is an aggressive perennial grass that is distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Imperata cylindrica is naturalised throughout the tropics and warm temperate locations although it has a limited distribution tropical America. Young inflorescences and shoots may be eaten cooked, and the roots contain starch and sugars and are therefore easy to chew. - 4 ft. 0 in. Life Cycle. further treatments may be needed to kill the rhizomatous root mat. currently no approved biocontrol agents for Cogongrass in the US, although Imperata cylindrica is the most morphologically variable species in … Cogongrass can be mowed, grazed, or burned, but it is difficult to control physically because it will propagate from stem fragments or the roots. In natural versions, leaves are light green. The grass blades tend to be yellow to green in color (Figure 1). Imperata Grassland Rehabilitation using Agroforestry and Assisted Natural Regeneration. Retrieved from http://www.gri.msstate.edu/ipams/species.php?CName=Cogongrass, Miller, J. Cogongrass. Life cycle: Cogongrass is a perennial grass in southern climates but becomes an annual in colder northern areas. Agnes Lusweti, National Museums of Kenya; Emily Wabuyele, National Museums of Kenya, Paul Ssegawa, Makerere University; John Mauremootoo, BioNET-INTERNATIONAL Secretariat - UK. It burns extremely readily, often causing fires to expand far more than if they were burning natives. No cut-mouth issues so far. Native to Southeast Asia, cogongrass is an aggressive invasive plant that that has spread to all continents except Antarctica (MacDonald 2004) and is considered among the worst problematic weeds on a global scale (Holm et al. The precise management measures adopted for any plant invasion will depend upon factors such as the terrain, the cost and availability of labour, the severity of the infestation and the presence of other invasive species. (Imperata cylindrica) invasions in the US: Mechanisms, impacts, and threats to In colder climates, it flowers and seeds in early summer before dying off with the first frost. and Miller, S.E. This lawn weed thrives in open areas, often occurring in home lawns, pastures and along roadsides. Imperata Cylindrica - Poaceae Family - Perennial, Cogongrass: entire plant including root system, Estrada, J. Nonnative invasive plants of This weed spreads not only by an aggressive root system, but also by fluffy white seed heads that produce an abundance of wind-blown seed in the early summer. Effects of light, temperature, KNO3, and storage on germination of cogon grass. Non Discrimination | In Malaysia, I. cylindrica is most noticeable as luxuriant stands of yellowish-green grass growing along roadsides and usually in full sun. They are produced during early to mid-June. Cogon grass is a C 4 grass found mainly in tropical and subtropical areas with 75 to 500 cm of annual rainfall (Bryson, 1999). Chemical The plant belon gs to t he family Poaceae. Typically, ambrosia beetles are considered beneficial because they accelerate the decay of dead trees, which is important for nutrient cycling in healthy forests. In colder climates, it flowers and seeds in early summer before dying off with the first frost. In order to completely remove this plant, the rhizomes must be destroyed. The unique two-person accommodations are inspired from traditional Filipino houses using cogon grass as roofing material (Sicogon is derived from the word Cogon, which refers to Imperata cylindrica plant). Witt pers. The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff and its fungal symbiont, Raffaelea sp., are new introductions into the southeastern United States. Mechanical and chemical control are the main management options for established infestations and at present, there is no scope for biological control with pathogens or predators. Today, cogon grass has been found in over 73 countries (MacDonald, 2004). Controlling the weed before it seeds will reduce future problems. It also spreads by rhizomes (root-like stems) which can be transported by tilling equipment and in soil transport. One IRRI/NRI (1996). Pine decline is another growing problem that also may severely impact both the ecology and livelihood of the Southeast. However, they aren’t going to clean up an infested field. Although Imperata cylindrica can have leaf blades of up to 1.5 m tall in conditions of good soil moisture and fertility (Holm et al. Ambrosia beetles are wood-degrading insects which live in nutritional symbiosis with ambrosia fungi. As a seedling, Johnsongrass looks similar to corn, … Imperata cylindrica may be confused with I. brasiliensis (Brazilian satintail). Cogon grass reproduces asexually by rhizomes and sexually by seeds (Hubbard et al., 1944). Bright green grass has silver hairs down the center of its short bamboo-like blade; grows up to 2 ft. tall. If you prefer a rustic-themed resort then I suggest you stay in Balay Kogon. Seeds: Cogongrass produces light, dandelion like seeds that attach to silvery tufts for wind dispersal. BioNET-EAFRINET Regional Coordinator: eafrinet@africaonline.co.ke, Introduced, naturalised or invasive in East Africa. Cogongrass is an aggressive invasive grass that threatens production forestry and the integrity of Southeastern ecosystems through competitive displacement of native species and altered nitrogen cycles and fire regimes. 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