This document describes Javascript coding standards for Phabricator and Javelin. The package.json configuration file that comes with the WordPress development code allows you to install and configure these tools. Exceptions: goog.module, goog.require and goog.requireType statements (see ?? This is an area where this standard differs from the WordPress PHP coding standards. Indentation and line breaks add readability to complex statements. jQuery’s 100-character hard line limit is encouraged, but not strictly enforced. While many languages have elements built in, such as formatters in the standard library, that will adjust and reformat the code to meet the language’s specific standards, JavaScript does not include such a function. A constant as defined in these coding guidelines applies only to values which are expected to never change, and is a strategy for developers to communicate intent moreso than it is a technical restriction. Indentation with tabs. Some whitespace rules differ, for consistency with the WordPress PHP coding standards. Our code must be as clean and easy to read as possible. All code in any code-base should look like a single person typed it, no matter how many people contributed. To only check core code, type npm run grunt jshint:core; to only check unit test .js files, type npm run grunt jshint:tests. Such variables must use the SCREAMING_SNAKE_CASE convention. ES module import and … camelCase is used by JavaScript itself, by jQuery, and other JavaScript All new or updated JavaScript code will be reviewed to ensure it conforms to the standards, and passes JSHint. Never rely on Automatic Semicolon Insertion (ASI). This is intended to reflect that each letter of the acronym is a proper word in its expanded form. This example would make passwordStrength an allowed global variable within that file: The “true” after passwordStrength means that this global is being defined within this file. JavaScript coding standards for improving the quality of your code. JPL have been developing software for most of unmanned missions in the field of deep space and other planets exploration. WordPress uses single quotation marks for string declarations. Watch 64 Star 1 Fork 17.9k Code. In some situations, parts of a file should be excluded from JSHint. Namespaces Expand full source codeCollapse full source code. Hyphens can be mistaken as subtraction attempts. necessary): A consequence of using "untidy" HTML styles, might result in JavaScript errors. ... JavaScript does not require this, but doing so This page describes the general JavaScript code conventions used by W3Schools. ESLint settings. Applying NASA coding standards to JavaScript Jet Propulsion Laboratory – scientific institution making a lot of research and development for NASA . Spaces may align code within documentation blocks or within a line, but only tabs should be used at the start of a line. Code in HTML adds significantly to pageweight with no opportunity for mitigation by caching, minification, and compression. between properties, like this: For readability, avoid lines longer than 80 Function contents are consistently indented, including full-file closure wrappers. If a function does not declare a variable using var, that variable can leak into an outer scope (which is frequently the global scope, a worst-case scenario), and can unwittingly refer to and modify that data. Object literal notation should be used unless the object requires a specific prototype, in which case the object should be created by calling a constructor function with new. When an object or array is too long to fit on one line, each member must be placed on its own line and each line ended by a comma. All function bodies are indented by one tab, even if the entire file is wrapped in a closure. It is not recommended to return a value from within a switch statement: use the case blocks to set values, then return those values at the end. The minification process creates a file that is optimized for browsers to read and process. This is wasted time and effort — we should build code based on agreed standards as outlined in this course of articles, not for one browser. Raw JavaScript Can Always Be Quicker Than Using a Library . In almost all cases, a constant should be defined in the top-most scope of a file. Examples might be simplified to improve reading and learning. JavaScript coding standards. Use RFC 2119 to interpret the “must,” “must not,” “required,” “shall,” “shall not,” “should,” “should not,” “recommended,” “may,” and “optional” keywords. If a JavaScript statement does not fit on one line, the best place to break Whitespace can easily accumulate at the end of a line – avoid this, as trailing whitespace is caught as an error in JSHint. Limiting JSHint to a single file can be useful if you are only working on one or two specific files and don’t want to wait for JSHint to process every single file each time it runs. Many programmers prefer to use underscores (date_of_birth), especially in SQL Backbone’s extend calls should be formatted as follows:. HTML, CSS (Sass), Twig and Smarty files MUST follow the Mark Otto’s coding standards. Files which add to, or modify, the wp object must safely access the global to avoid overwriting previously set properties: Variable and function names should be full words, using camel case with a lowercase first letter. NOTICE OF CONFIDENTIALITY . – Principles of Writing Consistent, Idiomatic JavaScript. All globals used within a file should be documented at the top of that file. Stick to a strict coding style. Acronyms must be written with each of its composing letters capitalized. This is contrary to the OKFN Coding Standards but matches what’s in use in the current code base. Backbone and Underscore may be accessed directly at any time. These two JavaScript statements will produce different results: If possible, use the same naming convention (as JavaScript) in HTML. JavaScript coding standards are no different. Other web servers (Microsoft, IIS) are not case sensitive: london.jpg can be accessed as London.jpg or london.jpg. If an abbreviation or an acronym occurs at the start of a variable name, it must be written to respect the camelcase naming rules covering the first letter of a variable or class definition. “Code refactoring should not be done just because we can.” – Lead Developer Andrew Nacin. W3Schools maintains a complete JavaScript reference, including all HTML and browser objects. No whitespace at the end of line or on blank lines. The web is for everybody, not an elite group of users with a state-of-the-art configuration. JavaScript API documentation and comment standards. Top ↑ Backbone classes # Backbone classes. When a statement is too long to fit on one line, line breaks must occur after an operator. There must be a single space between the comment token (//) and the comment text. For code written using ES2015 or newer, const and let should always be used in place of var. The use of JavaScript has exploded over time. Javascript Coding Standards¶ Formatting¶ All JavaScript documents must use two spaces for indentation. As an example, the script file for the admin bar contains the minified code for the jQuery HoverIntent plugin – this is third-party code that should not pass through JSHint, even though it is part of a WordPress core JavaScript file. Coding Style. The configuration options used for JSHint are stored within a .jshintrc title=”WordPress JSHint file in svn trunk” in the WordPress SVN repository. Follow the installation steps for your operating system to install the program. For class definitions, its initial letter should be capitalized. Actions Projects 0. ... is a static code analysis tool used in software development for checking if JavaScript source code complies with coding rules. Both JSHint and Grunt are programs written in Node.js. Even if the entire file is contained in a closure (i.e., an immediately invoked function), the contents of that function should be indented by one tab: if, else, for, while, and try blocks should always use braces, and always go on multiple lines. Object properties should be accessed via dot notation, unless the key is a variable or a string that would not be a valid identifier: When iterating over a large collection using a for loop, it is recommended to store the loop’s max value as a variable rather than re-computing the maximum every time: Learn and understand Underscore’s collection and array methods. If you use a mix of upper and lower case, you have to be extremely All JavaScript in the Umbraco core should adhere to these guidelines. JavaScript Coding Conventions. When a conditional is too long to fit on one line, each operand of a logical operator in the boolean expression must appear on its own line, indented one extra level from the opening and closing parentheses. A declaration should use const unless its value will be reassigned, in which case let is appropriate. Any additional lines should be indented with an additional tab. scripts should be minified. There are many ways to create objects in JavaScript. To avoid these problems, always use lower case file names (if possible). JavaScript Coding Standards Version: 1.0 4/6/2015. Use quotes around string values, not around numeric values. little impact on the execution of programs. Always include extra spaces around elements and arguments: Use them. Always use the same coding conventions for all your JavaScript This is a “soft” rule, but long lines generally indicate unreadable or disorganized code. Coding conventions are style guidelines for programming. Put the opening bracket at the end of the first line. Expand full source code Collapse full source code. Now it is practically unheard of for a website not to utilize JavaScript to some extent. This is a question programmers often discuss. Any violation to these standards is allowed if it enhances readability. Do not end a complex statement with a semicolon. This file defines which errors JSHint should flag if it finds them within the WordPress source code. For variable assignment, this means writing the abbreviation entirely as lowercase. While using W3Schools, you agree to have read and accepted our. front-end-build: Creates and minifies css and JavaScript files less: Compile all root less documents into their CSS counterparts minify: Create minified versions of the given Javascript and CSS files The argument behind defining the style guide is that “ long term value of the software is directly proportional to the quality of codebase ”. Moved to the in-tree documentation: Found a problem with this page? They usually make their own coding standards and guidelines depending on what suits their organization best and based on the types of software they develop. Coding conventions are not used by computers. – Principles of Writing Consistent, Idiomatic JavaScript leading spaces. This page covers DOM and Drupal specific code styles. Our standard differs from the jQuery guidelines in the following ways: Many of the examples below have been adapted directly from the jQuery style guide; these differences have all been integrated into the examples on this page. 4. if… Backbone, jQuery, Underscore, and the global wp object are all registered as allowed globals in the root .jshintrc file. Javascript Coding Standard — Clean Code. The reference contains examples for all properties, methods and events, and is continuously updated according to the latest web standards. JSHint is used in WordPress development to quickly verify that a patch has not introduced any logic or syntax errors to the front-end. Mark is the creator of the Bootstrap framework. Do not add a comma after the last property-value pair. This document provides the JavaScript coding standards for development. Exceptions are allowed for iterators, such as the use of i to represent the index in a loop. For code in development, readability should be preferred. CSS uses hyphens in property-names (font-size). @lends This tag will allow JSDoc to recognize the extend function from Backbone as a class definition. All @wordpress/element Components, including stateless function components, should be named using Class Definition naming rules, both for consistency and to reflect the fact that a component may need to be transitioned from a function to a class without breaking compatibility. Constructors intended for use with new should have a capital first letter (UpperCamelCase). Developers writing JavaScript and jQuery code for Magento must adhere to these guidelines and follow the standards listed in this document. Contributors should also follow these guidelines. Underscores are often used in PHP documentation. Rules for the use of white space, indentation, and comments. And this would only check the “password-strength-meter.js” file within the unit tests directory: npm run grunt jshint:tests --file=password-strength-meter.js. Naming and declaration rules for variables and functions. You can initialize an array during construction: In JavaScript, associative arrays are defined as objects. Lines should usually be no longer than 80 characters, and should not exceed 100 (counting tabs as 4 spaces). JerryScript Coding Standards. Settings to use for ESLint to ensure coding standards. eslint settings to impose Drupal JavaScript coding standards. Since core JavaScript files are sometimes used within plugins, existing globals should not be removed. All JavaScript in the backoffice needs to be in a namespace and defined in a class. These deviations are for consistency between the PHP and JavaScript files in the WordPress codebase. While the coding standards are important, refactoring older .js files simply to conform to the standards is not an urgent issue. Capitalize the first letter of the comment, and include a period at the end when writing full sentences. Property names only need to be quoted if they are reserved words or contain special characters: Objects and arrays can be declared on a single line if they are short (remember the line length guidelines). As a web developer who has concentrated on back-end coding in C# and front-end look and feel via HTML and CSS, my skills in JavaScript evolved over time instead of by conscious effort. If the method changes the context, an extra level of indentation must be used. The correct install file for your operating system will be downloaded. “When in doubt, space it out.” These rules encourage liberal spacing for improved developer readability. JavaScript best practices. It is very important for the programmers to maintain the coding standards otherwise the code will be rejected during code review. Overview. whichdigital / javascript-coding-standards forked from airbnb/javascript. Lines should be broken into logical groups if it improves readability, such as splitting each expression of a ternary operator onto its own line, even if both will fit on a single line. “When in doubt, space it out.”. This module saves you (and others!) projects. These rules encourage liberal spacing for improved developer readability. jQuery should be accessed through $ by passing the jQuery object into an anonymous function: This will negate the need to call .noConflict(), or to set $ using another variable. Inline comments are allowed as an exception when used to annotate special arguments in formal parameter lists: Strict equality checks (===) must be used in favor of abstract equality checks (==). It will put you in conflict with many JavaScript library names. JSHint is an automated code quality tool, designed to catch errors in your JavaScript code. Many parts of the WordPress code structure for JavaScript are inconsistent in their style. JavaScript Coding Standards itself is indented four spaces. Complete JavaScript Reference » We believe examples are better than long explanations. Indentation is two spaces. The legacy JavaScript code in the core doesn't adhere to these guidelines but should be refactored so that it does. 3. Most rules have Most web servers (Apache, Unix) are case sensitive about file names: london.jpg cannot be accessed as London.jpg. Documentation standards for JavaScript. There should be a new line at the end of each file. Each function should begin with a single comma-delimited var statement that declares any local variables necessary. This should be placed right before the Object that contains the class definition. This guide serves as the coding standard for all Appcelerator JavaScript code including the Mobile Web platform, Titanium Mobile project templates, KitchenSink, and all other sample code. It is important to note that JavaScript’s const assignment is conceptually more limited than what is implied here, where a value assigned by const in JavaScript can in-fact be mutated, and is only protected against reassignment. This document outlines technical and style guidelines which are followed in Phabricator and Javelin. These are the preferred ways of checking the type of an object: Anywhere Backbone or Underscore are already used, you are encouraged to use Underscore.js‘s type checking methods over jQuery’s. Coding conventions are style guidelines for programming. A class definition must use the UpperCamelCase convention, regardless of whether it is intended to be used with new construction. Always end an object definition with a semicolon. For example: Should you use hyp-hens, camelCase, or Unlike var, it is not necessary to declare all variables at the top of a function. Javascript files MUST follow the Airbnb Javascript style guide. Here are some of my tips for coding standards. Next, type npm install into the command line window. Security Insights Dismiss Join GitHub today. Coding style must follow the idiomatic.js style but with the following exceptions. General rules for complex (compound) statements: Short objects can be written compressed, on one line, using spaces only Standards are needed for formatting and styling JavaScript code to maintain the same code consistency as the WordPress standards provide for core PHP, HTML, and CSS code. The } (right curly brace) is aligned with the line containing the beginning of the declaration of the function. These functions, including _.each, _.map, and _.reduce, allow for efficient, readable transformations of large data sets. To exclude a specific file region from being processed by JSHint, enclose it in JSHint directive comments: Principles of Writing Consistent, Idiomatic JavaScript. Assignments within the var statement should be listed on individual lines, while declarations can be grouped on a single line. Create a config file named .eslintrc in the root of your JavaScript project (in the folder that contains all your files). Programming practices and principles; Coding conventions secure quality: Improves code readability; Make code maintenance easier For example, this will only check the file named “admin-bar.js” within WordPress’s core JavaScript files: npm run grunt jshint:core --file=admin-bar.js. Each rule starts with a short description followed by several examples. databases. The coding standards below are my own opinion on what can help with the above points, using what I have experienced whilst developing and reviewing other developers JavaScript. and ??). Javascript code conventions. Underscore also permits jQuery-style chaining with regular JavaScript objects: The only time jQuery should be used for iteration is when iterating over a collection of jQuery objects: Never use jQuery to iterate over raw data or vanilla JavaScript objects. Pull requests 3. Standards are needed for formatting and styling JavaScript code to maintain the same code consistency as the WordPress standards provide for core PHP, HTML, and CSS code. time in three ways: Install ESLint with the command npm install -g eslint (npm is a JavaScript package installer). JavaScript References. PascalCase is often preferred by C programmers. Javascript Coding Standards Overview Javascript Platform Roadmap Standards References: Other Resources: ECMA Script 5 Development Platform Javascript IDE Web Container Logging MVC Package Layout Components Controllers Delegates Events Callbacks Models Data Models Request Models Services Common Data Service Implementing a Data Service Views 1. Place the opening bracket on the same line as the object name. All JavaScript documents must use two spaces for indentation. Object declarations can be made on a single line if they are short (remember the line length guidelines). Use one space before the opening bracket. Code refactoring should not be done just because we can. Having said that, always keep in mind that a library can never be as fast as raw JavaScript (assuming you code correctly). It is provided primarily as an online tool, but there are also command-line adaptations. All other abbreviations must be written as camel case, with an initial capitalized letter followed by lowercase letters. “Whitespace-only” patches for older files are strongly discouraged. The answer depends on who you JavaScript style guide, linter, and formatter. consistent. You should also read the next chapter "Best Practices", and learn how to avoid coding pitfalls. Coding style must follow the idiomatic.js style but with the following exceptions. JavaScript code should not be embedded in HTML files unless the code is specific to a single session. You should now be able to type npm run grunt jshint to have Grunt check all the WordPress JavaScript files for syntax and logic errors. Use spaces liberally throughout your code. WordPress is working to gradually improve this, so the code will be clean and easy to read at a glance. JavaScript coding standards and guidelines. Creating arrays in JavaScript should be done using the shorthand [] constructor rather than the new Array() notation. Tutorials, references, and examples are constantly reviewed to avoid errors, but we cannot warrant full correctness of all content. Any of the below standards and examples should be considered best practice for WordPress code, unless explicitly noted as anti-patterns. 1. errors can break your web site. You should be in the root directory which contains the package.json file. Do not start names with a $ sign. JavaScript libraries, such as jQuery and Mootools, can save you an enormous amount of time when coding -- especially with AJAX operations. Put the closing bracket on a new line, without leading spaces. "Fiat"]; var person = {firstName:"John", lastName:"Doe", age:50, eyeColor:"blue"}; document.getElementById("demo").innerHTML =, W3Schools is optimized for learning and training. Except as noted below, any line that would exceed this limit must be line-wrapped, as explained in ??. Lines should usually be no longer than 80 characters, and should not exceed 100 (counting tabs as 4 spaces). They typically cover: Naming and declaration rules for variables and functions. GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. When an object declaration is too long to fit on one line, there must be one property per line. Always end a simple statement with a semicolon. Crockfords’s Coding Standards for JavaScript This one is the creation of Douglus Crockford, a JavaScript enthusiast. Source on GitHub; Report a problem with this content on GitHub; Want to fix the problem yourself? Use simple syntax for loading external scripts (the type attribute is not Code style is about consistency and discipline, and there's no real right or wrong. To specify a single file for JSHint to check, add --file=filename.js to the end of the command. Instead, they are to be declared at the point at which they are first used. Hyphens are not allowed in JavaScript names. JavaScript Coding Standards The PHP PHP The web scripting language in which WordPress is primarily architected. In the past, WordPress core made heavier use of global variables. JSDoc comments should use the /** multi-line comment opening. Indentation and extra spaces are not significant in small scripts. *: The WordPress JavaScript standards prefer slightly broader whitespace rules than the jQuery style guide. Should not be accessed as london.jpg or london.jpg best Practices '', and other JavaScript libraries to consistent. To the front-end occupy more than a handful of lines should usually be no longer than 80 characters and. That file for your operating system will be downloaded of the comment, and build together! 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