Reverend Richard Jones, An Essay on the Distribution of Wealth, and on the Sources of Taxation, London, 1831, Part I, Rent Elements of a Historical Interpretation of Rent. The Ricardian Conception That an Unlimited Expansion of Consumption and of the Internal Market Is Possible, 14. Contents of the Manuscript Theories of Surplus-Value. Klappentext Theories of Surplus Value is a book that, unlike Marx, actually needs an introduction. Toadyism to the Bourgeoisie and the Bourgeois State, 18. The capitalist pays his workers less than the value their labour has added to the goods, usually only enough to maintain the worker at a subsistence level. Confusion of Table of Annual Average Prices of Corn from 1641 to 1859, 7. Smith’s and Ricardo’s Method of Research), 10. Virtual Refutation of Malthus’s Theory of Population by Darwin, 3. Quesnay’s Attempt to Show the Process of Reproduction and Circulation of the Total Capital, 2. Inquiry into How It Is Possible for the Annual Profit and Wages to Buy the Annual Commodities, Which Besides Profit and Wages Also Contain Constant Capital, (a)  Impossibility of the Replacement of the Constant Capital of the Producers of Consumption Goods through Exchange between These Producers, (b)  Impossibility of Replacing the Whole Constant Capital of Society by Means of Exchange between the Producers of Articles of Consumption and the Producers of Means of Production, (c)  Exchange of Capital for Capital between the Producers of Means of Production, Annual Product of Labour and the Product of Labour Newly Added Annually, 11. Cherbuliez Eclectically Combines Mutually Exclusive Propositions of Ricardo and Sismondi, 1. Divided into three parts, this lengthy work reviews classic economic analyses of labor and value (Smith, Ricardo, Malthus, and others), focusing on the concept of Ramsay on the Division of “Gross Profit” into “Net Profit” (Interest) and “Profit of Enterprise”. The value of the product produced by labor is greater than the actual price of labor as paid out in wages. . His Use of Smith’s Mistaken Theses in His Polemic Against Ricardo, 5. The Connection Between Ricardo’s Conception of Surplus-Value and His Views on Profit and Rent, 1. His Failure to Understand the Real Causes of the Fetishism of Capital, (e)  Compound Interest: Fall in the Rate of Profit Based on This, (f)  Hodgskin on the Social Character of Labour and on the Relation of Capital to Labour, (g)  Hodgskin’s Basic Propositions as Formulated in His Book —Popular Political Economy, (h)  Hodgskin on the Power of Capital and on the Upheaval in the Right of Property, 4. Reduction of Surplus-Value to Profit. Demand. Carey, Malthus and James Deacon Hume on Improvements in Agriculture, 5. Cherbuliez on the “Law of Appropriation” in Capitalist Economy, 4. Smith’s False Assumptions in the Theory of Cost-Prices. Ricardo’s Denial of General Over-production. Machinery Ricardo and Barton on the Influence of Machines on the Conditions of the Working Class, (a)  Ricardo’s Original Surmise Regarding the Displacement of Sections of the Workers by Machines, (b)  Ricardo on the Influence of Improvements in Production on the Value of Commodities. The Duality in Smith’s Conception of Productive Labour. Download it Theories Of Surplus Value Volume 3 books also available in PDF, EPUB, and Mobi Format for read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Ricardo’s Criticism of Adam Smith’s and Malthus’s Views on Rent, Chapter XIV. General Character of the Contradictions in Smith, Chapter IV. His Failure to Understand the Economic Consequences of Changes in the Organic Composition of Agricultural Capital, 5. Confusion of Cost-Prices with Value in the Ricardian Theory of Profit, 5. The Reactionary Role of Malthus’s Writings and Their Plagiaristic Character. Find books Absolute Rent Causes the Prices of Agricultural Products to Rise, 3. Theories of Surplus Value. Value and Average Price in Agriculture. Attempts to Draw a Distinction between Them by Storch and Ramsay, 10. Rate of Rent and Rate of Profit. The Problem of the Equivalent. Download books for free. Source: Karl Marx, Theories of surplus-value (Volume IV of Capital), Part I, (pp.387-413), Progress Publishers, Moscow 1975 MarxEngles.public-archive.net #ME1920en.html Adam Smith’s Analysis of the Variations in the Prices of Products of the Land, 5. Attempt to Explain Wages, Rent of Land, the Price of Land and Interest on the Basis of the Theory of Value, 4. Theories Of Surplus Value Volume 3 by Karl Marx, Theories Of Surplus Value Volume 3 Book available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Barton’s and Ricardo’s Lack of Understanding of the Inner Connection Between This Phenomenon and the Domination of Capital over Labour, (b)  Barton’s Views on the Movement of Wages and the Growth of Population, 1. The difference between the two (surplus value) is confiscated by the bourgeois (the owner of the company). Changes in the Rate of Absolute Rent and Their Relation to the Changes in the Rate of Profit, (c)  Observations on the Influence of the Change in the Value of the Means of Subsistence and of Raw Material (Hence also the Value of Machinery) on the Organic Composition of Capital, (d)  Changes in the Total Rent, Dependent on Changes in the Market-Value, Chapter XIII. Download books for free. Smith’s Conclusions Regarding the Theory of Rent, 4. The Connection Between Different Branches of Production in the Process of Accumulation. 5 reviews. Ricardo’s Inconsistency Owing to His Retention of the Smithian Identification of Value and Cost-Price, 2. Richard Jones, Textbook of Lectures on the Political Economy of Nations, Hertford, 1852, (a)  Jones’s Views on Capital and the Problem of Productive and Unproductive Labour, (b)  Jones on the Influence Which the Capitalist Mode of Production Exerts on the Development of the Productive Forces. Vindication of an Unrestrained Growth of Unproductive Labour, 14. In that case the machinery is merely used up faster, its reproduction period is curtailed, but at the same time more surplus-value is produced; and though the value of the machine has to be distributed over the commodities produced during a shorter period far more commodities are being produced, so that despite this more rapid depreciation of the machine, a smaller portion of machine value enters into the value … Rodbertus’s Thesis that in Agriculture Raw Materials Lack Value Is Fallacious, 5. An Analysis of the Source of Surplus-Value Is Lacking in Ricardo’s Work. Vulgar Political Economy, 1. Productive Labour from the Standpoint of Capitalist Production: Labour Which Produces Surplus-Value, 2. Unprincipled Eclecticism, (b)  Distortion of the Concept of Labour Through Its Extension to Processes of Nature. Nassau Senior Proclamation of All Functions Useful to the Bourgeoisie as Productive. Tables of Differential Rent and Comment, 1. Find books Historical Background to the Problem of Interest. The Vicious Circle of Smith’s Conception of “Natural Price” as the Sum of Wages, Profit and Rent, 8. Theories of surplus-value (volume IV of Capital) This edition published in 1963 by Progress Publishers in Moscow. Ricardo, 14. A Return Flow of the Money Which Does Not Indicate Reproduction, 4. The Inadequacy of the Ricardian Definition of Rent, Chapter XII. Topics Marxism, capitalism, David Ricardo, Johann Karl Rodbertus, rent, profit Collection opensource Language English. Surplus-Value. Interest-Bearing Capital as the Clearest Expression of This Fetish. Rodbertus’s Lack of Understanding of the Relationship Between Average Price and Value in Industry and Agriculture. Advocates of Smith’s Views on Productive Labour. Attempts to Prove That a Constant Decrease of Profit Is Not Inevitable, (a)  Observations on Certain Verbal Disputes. Views of the Physiocrats and Mercantilists on Productive Labour, 3. The Notion of Profit, Rent and Interest as Deductions from the Product of the Worker’s Labour, 3. The Relation of Interest to Industrial Profit. Marx's Theories of Surplus Value is the fourth volume of his monumental Das Kapital (Capital) and is now available exclusively from Prometheus and Humanity Books. Further Development of Physiocratic Theory with Turgot: Elements of a Deeper Analysis of Capitalist Relations, 4  Confusion of Value with Material Substance (Paoletti), 5  Elements of Physiocratic Theory in Adam Smith, 6  The Physiocrats as Partisans of Large-Scale Capitalist Agriculture, 7  Contradictions in the Political Views of the Physiocrats. Significance of the Tableau Economique in the History of Political Economy, [Chapter VII]  Linguet. Ricardo’s Confusion about the Question of “Absolute” and “Relative” Value. Interest as Part of Profit. The Development of Interest-Bearing Capital on the Basis of Capitalist Production Transformation of the Relations of the Capitalist Mode of Production into a Fetish. Changes in the Amount and Rate of Rent, 2. The Vulgar Element in Smith’s Theory]..... [6.Smith’s Erroneous View of Profit, Rent of Land and Wages as Sources of Value] . Scepticism in Political Economy, (b)  An Inquiry into those Principles … The Lack of Understanding of the Contradictions of the Capitalist Mode of Production Which Cause Crises, (c)  Thomas De Quincey Failure to Overcome the Real Flaws in the Ricardian Standpoint, (d)  Samuel Bailey Smith’s Thesis of the Invariable Value of Labour as Interpreted by Malthus, 6. Bourgeois Conception of Profit as Reward for Risk, (b)  Commodities Which the Labourer Buys from the Capitalist. Quantity of Labour and Value of Labour. This Leads to a Negative Attitude Towards the Results of the Capitalist Development of the Productive Forces, (a)  The Thesis of the Unproductiveness of Capital as a Necessary Conclusion from Ricardo’s Theory, (b)  Polemic Against the Ricardian Definition of Capital as Accumulated Labour. Malthus’s One-sided Interpretation of Smith’s Theory of Value. In this treatise he in fact determines the value of commodities by the comparative quantity of labour they contain. Rodbertus’s Error Regarding the Relation Between Value and Surplus-Value When the Costs of Production Rise), 5. General Nature of the Polemics Against Smith’s Distinction between Productive and Unproductive Labour. The Irrationality of the Fetishised Forms of Revenue, 4. His Polemic Against Ricardo’s Conception of the Relative Wages of Labour, 8. The Relationship of the Rate of Profit to the Rate of Surplus-Value, The Value of Agricultural Raw Material as an Element of Constant Capital in Agriculture, 3. In this group we will read the three volumes of Theories of Surplus Value sometimes known as the 4th volume of Capital. Jones’s Superiority over Ricardo in Particular Questions of the Theory of Rent and His Mistakes in This Field, 2. Stirling Vulgarised Explanation of Profit by the Interrelation of Supply and Demand, 7. New Theory of Rent. eBooks: ePub version (1,500kb), North Money as Capital. Ricardo’s Views on Improvements in Agriculture. Failure to Understand the Inner Connection Between Interest and the System of Wage-Labour, 7. The Level of Interest Explained by the Rate of Profit, 8. Mark-up: Hans G. Ehrbar. Ricardo’s Assumption of the Non-Existence of Landed Property. Locke Treatment of Rent and Interest from the Standpoint of the Bourgeois Theory of Natural Law, 5. Adam Smith’s Theory of the “Natural Rate” of Wages, Profit and Rent, 1. Ganilh and Ricardo on Net Revenue. Conception of “Immaterial Labour” Performed by the Ruling Class, 17. Marx-Engels Archive | Pellegrino Rossi Disregard of the Social Form of Economic Phenomena. The Twofold Influence of Competition, 4. Report on Marketing Approach Analysis of Standard Bank Limited, Report on Definition of Foreign Exchange, Statuory Provision and Legal Machanism About Dower in Bangladesh. This theory seems very reasonable. Jones’s Confusion with regard to the “Labor Fund”, 3. The Vulgar Element in Smith’s Theory, 6. It is discussed in his monument work “Das Capital” which showed the opaque side of capitalism and is ample testimony of worker’s exploitation in capitalist society. Smith’s Dual View of the Relationship between Value and Revenue. This means that the same capital can be loaned over and over without the ownership of it changing hands. Periods of Rising and Periods of Falling Corn Prices (1641-1859), 9. Manuscripts of 1864 | Industrial Profit as “Wages for the Capitalist”, 5. These notebooks written in the years 1861-63 are perhaps one of the first and most thorough analysis of the history of economic thought. There are two forms of surplus value. Exchange of Revenue and Capital Replacement of the Total Amount of the Annual Product: (a) Exchange of Revenue for Revenue; (b) Exchange of Revenue for Capital; (c) Exchange of Capital for Capital, 11. The Concept of Coexisting Labour. Conception of Rent as the Sole Form of Surplus-Value 2Contradictions in the System of the Physiocrat… The View of Capital as the Surplus Product of the Worker. Ricardo’s Confusion of the Laws of Surplus-Value with the Laws of Profit, 2. His Thesis of the Rising Productivity of Agriculture and Its Influence on Differential Rent, 10. Rodbertus and the Practicians among the Economists of the Eighteenth Century, 2. Interest and Rent as Constituent Elements of the Market Price of Commodities. The Direct Transformation of a Part of Surplus-Value into Constant Capital—a Characteristic Peculiar to Accumulation in Agriculture and the Machine-building Industry, 5. Relative Surplus-Value. Smith’s Failure to Grasp the Specific Way in Which the Law of Value Operates in the Exchange between Capital and Wage-Labour, 5. The Untenability of the Rodbertian Critique of Ricardo’s Theory of Rent. Sir James Steuart. Interest-Bearing Capital and Commercial Capital in Relation to Industrial Capital. Cynical Apologia for Capitalist Production. Distinction between “Profit upon Alienation” and the Positive Increase of Wealth, 1  Transfer of the Inquiry into the Origin of Surplus-Value from the Sphere of Circulation into the Sphere of Direct Production. On the History of the Subject, (a)  Advocates of the First View: Ricardo, Sismondi, (b)  Early Attempts to Distinguish between Productive and Unproductive Labour (D’Avenant, Petty), (c)  John Stuart Mill, an Adherent of Smith’s Second View of Productive Labour, 7. Value Operates in the Exchange between Capital and Wage-Labour] [5. (As Presented by Ricardo the Problem of the Exchange of Labour for Capital Cannot Be Solved, 2. Berkeley on Industry as the Source of Wealth, (b)  Hume. Contents of the Manuscript Theories of Surplus-Value. The General Rate of Profit and the Rate of Absolute Rent in Their Relation to Each Other. Theories was intended to be collected and published as the fourth volume to Marx's Capital, but after Engels had successfully collected and published volumes two and three after … (b) Confusion with Regard to Profit and the Value of Labour Smith’s General Conception of Surplus-value. Ganilh as Advocate of a Diminution of the Productive Population; Ricardo as Advocate of the Accumulation of Capital and the Growth of Productive Forces, 10. Ferrier Protectionist Character of Ferrier’s Polemics against Smith’s Theory of Productive Labour and the Accumulation of Capital. The Ricardian Assertion that Rent Cannot Possibly Influence the Price of Corn. Smith’s and Ricardo’s Conception of the “Natural Price” of the Agricultural Product, 4. Ricardo’s Theory of Surplus-Value. Physiocratic Elements in Smith’s Theory of Rent, 3. Theories was intended to be collected and published as the fourth volume to Marx's Capital, but after Engels had successfully collected and published volumes two and three after Marx's death, Engels died before he could publish it. Historical Conditions for the Development of the Theory of Rent by Anderson and Ricardo, 2. A 1971 (third printing 1975) Soviet work. The Struggle of Vulgar Socialism Against Interest (Proudhon). Ricardo’s Views on the Different Types of Accumulation of Capital and on the Economic Consequences of Accumulation, Chapter XVIII. The False Conception that the Total Capital Is Replaced through the Revenue of the Consumers, (b)  Replacement of the Constant Capital by Means of the Exchange of Capital against Capital, (c)  Vulgar Assumptions of Garnier’s Polemics against Smith. Distinction between “Profit upon Alienation” and the Positive Increase of Wealth Chapter II. Contradictions in Smith’s Formulation of the Problem of Rent, 2. Differential Rent and Absolute Rent in Their Reciprocal Relationship. Ravenstone. Malthus’s Theory of Value Supplementary Remarks, 11. The Value of Constant Capital Decreases While That of Variable Capital Increases and Vice Versa, and the Effect of These Changes on the Rate of Profit, 4. Marx himself considered his Theory of Surplus-Value his most important contribution to the progress of economic analysis. The Relationship of the Rate of Profit to the Rate of Surplus- ... velopment of the Theories of Rent] . Value of Labour-Power. Confusion of the Antagonistic Form of Capitalist Development with Its Content. Essential Difference Between Classical and Vulgar Economy. Garnier’s Relapse into Physiocratic Ideas. Circulation of Commodities and Circulation of Money in the Tableau Economique. Theories of Surplus Value | Karl Marx | download | B–OK. The Importance of the Questions He Raises about the Role of Foreign Trade in Capitalist Society and of “Free Time” as Real Wealth, 2. Concluding Observations on Adam Smith and His Views on Productive and Unproductive Labour, [Chapter V]  Necker [Attempt to Present the Antagonism of Classes in Capitalism as the Antithesis between Poverty and Wealth], [Chapter VI]  Quesnay’s Tableau Economique (Digression), 1. Proclamation of the “Industrial Capitalist” as the Sole Productive Labourer, 15. Absolute Rent, (a)  Equalisation of the Rate of Profit in Industry, (c)  Private Ownership of the Land as a Necessary Condition for the Existence of Absolute Rent. Malthus’s Confusion of the Categories Commodity and Capital, 2. Underestimation of the Importance of Materialised Past Labour. Value of the Constant Capital and Value of the Product, 3. James Mill Futile Attempts to Resolve the Contradictions of the Ricardian System, (a)  Confusion of Surplus-Value with Profit, (b)  Mill’s Vain Efforts to Bring the Exchange Between Capital and Labour into Harmony with the Law of Value, (c)  Mill’s Lack of Understanding of the Regulating Role of Industrial Profit, (e)  Prévost Rejection of Some of the Conclusions of Ricardo and James Mill. Malthus on Productive Labour and Accumulation, 9. On the Circulation of Money between Capitalist and Labourer, (a)  The Absurdity of Speaking of Wages as an Advance by the Capitalist to the Labourer. Available Wealth in Relation to the Movement of Production, (c)  So-called Accumulation as a Mere Phenomenon of Circulation. The Pamphlet The Source and Remedy of the National Difficulties, (a)  Profit, Rent and Interest Regarded as Surplus Labour of the Workers. His Lack of Understanding of the Forms of Value. Individual Instances in Which Ricardo Distinguishes Between Surplus-Value and Profit, 2. By natural price he means in fact value, and it is only this that concerns us here, since it is on the determination of value that the determination of surplus value depends. Circulation between Farmers and Landowners. Chapter I. Download Theories Of Surplus Value full book in PDF, EPUB, and Mobi Format, get it for read on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. The Attempt to Distinguish Between Constant and Variable Capital. Contradictions in His Views on Gross and Net Revenue, 9. Theories of Surplus-Value Part 2 by Marx, Karl, 1818-1883. Surplus-Value in Agriculture Resolves into Profit and Rent, 4. Hobbes on Labour, on Value and on the Economic Role of Science, 2. Ricardo’s Description of Profit, Rate of Profit, Average Prices etc. Formation of the General Rate of Profit (Average Profit or “Usual Profit”), a) The Starting-Point of the Ricardian Theory of Profit Is the Antecedent Predetermined Average Rate of Profit, b) Ricardo’s Mistakes Regarding the Influence of Colonial Trade, and Foreign Trade in General, on the Rate of Profit, 3. Cherbuliez’s Inkling that the Organic Composition of Capital Is Decisive for the Rate of Profit. Erroneous Formulation of the Question of Variations in “Relative Values” and Their Causative Factors, (b)  Ricardo’s Confusion of Cost-Prices with Value and the Contradictions in His Theory of Value Arising Therefrom. Source: Theories of Surplus Value, Progress Publishers; The Interrelation Between the Accumulation of Capital and the So-called “Labour Fund”, (b)  On the Exchange Between Capital and Revenue in the Case of Simple Reproduction and of the Accumulation of Capital, (c)  The Merits of the Author of the Pamphlet and the Theoretical Confusion of His Views. Fall of Profit and Interest Dependent on the Growth of Trade and Industry, (c)  Massie. The Theory of the Impossibility of General Over-production Is Essentially Apologetic in Tendency, 15. Ricardo’s Miscellanea. Rent as an Historical Category. Scanned by Ismail, sent to him by Nathan O'Connor. Absurd Denial of the Over-production of Commodities, Accompanied by a Recognition of the Over-abundance of Capital, 8. ..... [2. The Process of Ossification of the Converted Forms of Surplus-Value and Their Ever Greater Separation from Their Inner Substance—Surplus Labour. Notes on the History of the Discovery of the So-Called Ricardian Law of Rent. Theories of Surplus Value. Distortion of Anderson’s Views by His Plagiarist: Malthus, in the Interests of the Landowners, 2. The whole marxian theory of surplus-value is therefore based upon that subtle distinction between ‘labour power’ and ‘labour’ (or value). The Return Circuit of Money to the Farmers, Which Does Not Express Reproduction, 3. The View that Capital Is Not an Essential Social Form, 2. Various Combinations of Differential and Absolute Rent. Agriculture Develops Slower Than Industry under Conditions of Capitalism, 2. The Growth of Trade as the Cause of the Fall in the Rate of Interest, 6. Smith’s Erroneous View of Profit, Rent of Land and Wages as Sources of Value, 7. Apologetic Conception of Unproductive Consumption as a Necessary Spur to Production, 16. Adam Smith’s and Ricardo’s Error in Failing to Take into Consideration Constant Capital. Adam Smith’s Views on the Movements of Rent and His Estimation of the Interests of the Various Social Classes. The Kernel of Truth in the Law Distorted by Rodbertus, 9. Theories Of Surplus Value full free pdf books Polemics against the Landed Aristocracy from the Standpoint of the Physiocrats (an Anonymous English Author), 11. Count Destutt de Tracy Vulgar Conception of the Origin of Profit. (c) Confusion of Value and Price. The Social Essence of Malthus’s Polemic Against Ricardo. Say as Vulgariser of Smith’s Theory. Ricardo’s Wrong Conception of the Relation Between Production and Consumption under the Conditions of Capitalism, 10. Early Formulation of the Thesis That the Supply of Agricultural Products Always Corresponds to Apologetic Elements in His Views on the “Labour of Superintendence”, “Insurance Covering the Risk Involved” and “Excess Profit”, 1. Germs of the Labour Theory of Value. Relation Between Productivity in Agriculture and in Industry in the Different Stages of Historical Development, Chapter IX. His Concept of Working-Day as a Fixed Magnitude, 4. The notion of surplus value, while articulated by Marx in its most advanced form, under different names, has a long pre-history that can be traced all the way back to William Petty. Smith’s Error in Resolving the Total Value of the Social Product into Revenue. Agriculture Develops Slower Than Industry under Conditions of Capitalism] . Revenue and its Sources. The Row Between the Supporters of Malthus and Ricardo in the Twenties of the 19th Century. Herr Rodbertus. Nathaniel Forster on the Hostility Between Landowners and Traders, 3. [Early Critique of the Bourgeois-Liberal View of the “Freedom” of the Labourer], Addenda to Part 1 of Theories of Surplus-Value, 1. The Separation of Individual Parts of Surplus-Value in the Form of Different Revenues. Productive and Unproductive Labour, (a)  Productivity of Capital as the Capitalist Expression of the Productive Power of Social Labour, (b)  Productive Labour in the System of Capitalist Production, (c)  Two Essentially Different Phases in the Exchange between Capital and Labour, (d)  The Specific Use-Value of Productive Labour for Capital, (e)  Unproductive Labour as Labour Which Performs Services; Purchase of Services under Conditions of Vulgar Conception of the Relation between Capital and Labour as an Exchange of Services, (f)  The Labour of Handicraftsmen and Peasants in Capitalist Society, (g)  Supplementary Definition of Productive Labour as Labour Which Is Realised in Material Wealth, (h)  Manifestations of Capitalism in the Sphere of Immaterial Production, (i)  The Problem of Productive Labour from the Standpoint of the Total Process of Material Production, (j)  The Transport Industry as a Branch of Material Production. Productive Labour in the Transport Sir James Steuart. Preface by the Institute of Marxism-leninism, C.C. Necessary Conditions for the Accumulation of Capital. Productivity of Capital. Theories of Surplus Value is a book that, unlike Marx, actually needs an introduction. General Observation. Critique of Malthus’s Conception of “Unproductive Consumers” by Supporters of Theories of Surplus-Value Part 3 by Marx, Karl, 1818-1883. Marx himself considered his Theory of Surplus-Value his most important contribution to the progress of economic analysis. Malthus’s Distortion of Sismondi’s Views on the Contradictions in Bourgeois Production, 13. Adam Smith’s Explanation of How the Relation Between Supply and Demand Affects the Various Types of Products from the Land. Theories was intended to be collected and published as the fourth volume to Marx's Capital, but after Engels had successfully collected and published volumes two and three after Marx's death, Engels died before he could publish it. Smith’s Confusion on the Question of Accumulation. The Determination of Value by Labour-Time—the Basis of Ricar-do’s Theory. Malthus’s Apologia for the Existence of “Upper” and “Lower” Classes, 15. The Vulgar Element in Smith’s View of “Productive Labourers”, 12. The Costs of Bringing Land into Cultivation.