Based on the available evidence it is concluded that all sedimentary mussel biotopes are sensitive to ‘penetration and/or disturbance of the seabed’. Essink (1999) recorded fatal burial depths of 1-2 cm for Mytilus edulis and suggested that they had a low tolerance of sedimentation based on investigations by R.Bijkerk (cited by Essink, 1999). Where A3.1111 occurs on boulders and/or sites subject to disturbance during severe weather conditions, rock that is scoured clean may then be rapidly colonised by fast-growing green algae such as Enteromorpha spp. A decrease in water flow is unlikely to affect adversely blue mussel beds directly. Hiebenthal, C., Philipp, E.E.R., Eisenhauer, A. Artisanal dredges as efficient and rationale harvesting gears in a Patagonian mussel fishery. Mytilus edulis. In areas of high water flow the mussel bed will rely on recruitment from other populations as larvae will be swept away and therefore recovery will depend on recruitment from elsewhere. ): UKMMAS, Defra, London. However, only 15% of mussel loss was as a direct result of trampling, with the remaining loss occurring during intervals between treatment applications. Recent evidence suggests that Marteilia is transferred to and from Mytilus edulis via the copepod Paracartia grani. Several factors influence both qualitatively and quantitatively the routes of fuel utilization and end product formation to generate the ATP necessary to survive periods without oxygen. Version 04.05. A rise in sea level increases the water depth at the shore and results in increased wave and tidal energy along the shore, due to the increase in fetch and reduction in wave attenuation (Pethick, 1996, Crooks, 2004, Fujii & Raffaelli, 2008). Mytilus edulis is found in a wide range of salinities from variable salinity areas (18-35 ppt) such as estuaries and intertidal areas to areas of more constant salinity (30-35 ppt) in the sublittoral (Connor et al ., 2004). Mytilus edulis is found in a wide range of salinities from variable salinity areas (18-35 ppt) such as estuaries and intertidal areas to areas of more constant salinity (30-35 ppt) in the sublittoral (Connor et al., 2004). (e.g. Intertidal Mytilus edulis beds on mixed and sandy sediments EUNIS Code: A2.7211 and A2.7212 National Marine Habitat Classification for UK & Ireland code: LS.LMX.LMus.Myt.Mx and LS.LMX.LMus.Myt.Sa Sediment shores characterised by beds of the mussel Mytilus edulis occur principally on mid and lower Journal of Sea Research, 45, 27-36. But they also noted that even artisanal hand fisheries can deplete the mussel biomass on accessible beds in the absence of adequate recruitment of mussels. Nutrient enrichment may impact mussel beds by altering the biomass of phytoplankton and macroalgae. Long-term laboratory experiments on the influence of ferric hydroxide flakes on the filter-feeding behaviour, growth, iron content and mortality in Mytilus edulis L. Marine pollution and sea life. (1998) also point out that the source areas for recruitment to beds is unknown and the relationship between stock and recruitment poorly understood. is altered. This copepod is not currently prevalent in the UK waters, with only a few records in the English Channel and along the South coast. There is no evidence for the impacts of hydraulic dredging on mussels but Hall et al. Evidence for the impacts of microbial pathogens on Mytilus edulis was reviewed by Mainwaring et al. Cooling water management in European power stations Biology and control of fouling. Settlement occurs in two phases, an initial attachment using their foot (the pediveliger stage) and then a second attachment by the byssus thread before which they may alter their location to a more favourable one (Bayne, 1964). It has a high fecundity, a long-lived pelagic larval phase and hence high dispersal potential (>1000km). (2014) and considers the potential impacts on natural mussel beds of genetic flow between translocated stocks and wild mussel beds. Williams (1970) observed that Mytilus edulis tolerated a tissue temperature as low as -10°C. The water is brackish (about 14PSU). Blue mussels are active suspension feeders generating currents by beating cilia and are therefore not entirely dependent on water flow to supply food (organic particulates and phytoplankton). As the majority of the mussel beds that are harvested in the UK are regularly replenished with seed, the recovery rate for maintained beds should be rapid. [1]Esta especie, cunha ampla área de dispersión, é obxecto de uso comercial e cultívase amplamente en acuicultura intensiva (mitilicultura). The differences may not always be directly connected to the underlying substratum on which the mussel bed may have started a long time ago. A decrease in wave exposure is likely to result in increased sedimentation and reduced densities (Westerbom & Jattu, 2006) although the risk of dislodgement will be greatly reduced creating more stable beds (Nehls & Thiel, 1993). Food Supply and Seawater pCO2 Impact Calcification and Internal Shell Dissolution in the Blue Mussel Mytilus edulis. (20/05/2015). New York: John Wiley & Sons. The zone of sympatry and hybridization of Mytilus edulis and M. galloprovincialis, as described by intron length polymorphism at locus mac-1. However, Harger & Landenberger (1971) suggest that growth in mussel beds results in fewer mussels being attached to the substratum and therefore strong seas can “roll up the whole mass of mud and mussels like a carpet and break it to pieces on the foreshore”. As the larvae of Mytilus edulis are planktonic and are transported by water movements, barriers that reduce the degree of tidal excursion may alter the supply of Mytilus edulis to suitable habitats from source populations. Increased temperatures may also allow for range expansion of parasites or pathogens which will have a negative impact on the health of the mussels if they become infected. The thermal tolerance of Mytilus edulis decreases under repeated heat stress, therefore this species is likely to be especially sensitive to both marine and aerial heatwaves (Seuront et al., 2019). Vsak pododdelek določa osemmestna številska koda. J. Ex. This effect will increase predation pressure on surviving damaged and intact Mytilus edulis. DOI https://doi.org/10.1086/BBLv217n1p73. Mytilus edulis occurs in areas of high suspended particulate matter (SPM) and therefore a level of siltation is expected from the settling of SPM. barnacles and macroalgae) growing on mussels are also more susceptible to removal in areas of high wave exposure due to increased drag caused by these fouling organisms (Suchanek, 1985; Seed & Suchanek, 1992). The kelp Laminaria digitata is usually absent, although stunted plants may be present at a few sites. If air temperatures rise by 3, 4, and 6°C by the end of the century (middle and high emission and extreme scenarios, respectively), this could lead to temperatures reaching average summer high temperatures of between 28 - 31°C. In 1993-94 the size of mussel landings was found to correlate with a reduction in the overall stock size of the area, suggesting that mussel mortality was significantly increased by the fishery. Effects of inorganic and organic nutrient enrichment on growth and bioenergetics of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Smith, J.R. & Murray, S.N., 2005. Nature, 560 (7718), 360-364. Sensitivity assessment. DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.04.111, Bergmann, M., Wieczorek, S.K., Moore, P.G., 2002. Holt et al. Algal blooms may die off suddenly, causing de-oxygenation (see de-oxygenation pressure) where the algae decompose on the seabed. The geomorphology of mudflat. Normal feeding in Mytilus edulis and other suspension-feeding bivalves with laterofrontal cirri depends on the cirri-trapping principle [46–48] where bands of lateral cilia produce the main water transport through interfilamentary canals of the gill while suspended particles are separated from the main currents and transferred onto the frontal surface by the action of the laterofrontal cirri. Three sub-biotopes are recognised for this biotope, distinguished principally on the basis of the sediment type associated with the mussel beds. In addition, the high rate of faecal and pseudofaecal matter production by the mussels naturally results in siltation of the seabed, often resulting in the formation of large mounds beneath the mussel bed. 223-307. Seasonal changes in stress-70 protein levels reflect thermal tolerance in the marine bivalve Mytilus edulis L. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 229 (1), 53-68. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists, 27(4), 148-156. Winter (1972, cited by Moore, 1977) recorded 75% mortality of Mytilus edulis in concentrations of 1.84-7.36 mg/l when food was also available. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 328 (2), 211-227. Other species known to negatively impact Mytilus edulis are Gyrodinium aureolum (Tangen, 1977; Widdows et al., 1979b) and a non-flagellated chrysophycean alga (Tracey, 1988). Therefore, a resistance of ‘Low’ is suggested, with a resilience of ‘Medium’, resulting in a sensitivity of ‘Medium’. Fishing activities may exposure infauna, and leave dead and damaged species on the seabed, and areas where discards and by-catch have been deposited may also attract predators and scavengers. & Gray, I.E., 1960. (2011) observed that the cycle took longer than this to recover from the cycle disruption. Countryside Council for Wales, Bangor, Contract Science Report, no. & Riebesell, U., 2008. When cultured at levels of acidification expected for the end of this century, under both the middle (550 ppm) and high (1000 ppm) emission scenario, results showed that Mytilus edulis shells became more brittle (Fitzer et al., 2015). Gonzalez & Yevich (1976) found that Mytilus edulis could not tolerate sustained temperatures of 27°C, and feeding stopped after 25°C. in Rhode Island In Naturalist, 14, 1-4. Similar effects could be observed through the grounding of a vessel, the dropping of an anchor or the laying of a cable, although the scale of damage clearly differs. The resilience assessments have adopted the rates used by Mainwaring et al. Burrows, M.T., 2017. They also stated that the initial effects of removal were ‘overshadowed’ by the loss of additional mussels during time periods between treatments, probably due to the indirect effect of the weakening of byssal threads attachments between the mussel leaving them more susceptible to wave action (Smith & Murray, 2005). Preliminary investigations into sunflower oil contamination following the wreck of the M.V. 1. DOI https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-5-485-2008, UKTAG, 2014. Burial of Mytilus edulis beds by large scale movements of sand, and resultant mortalities have been reported from Morecambe Bay, the Cumbrian coast and Solway Firth (Holt et al., 1998). Scottish MPA Project Fisheries Management Guidance, Joint Nature Conservation Committie, Peterborough,  http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/pdf/SMPA_fisheries_management_guidance_blue_mussel_beds_July_2013.pdf, JNCC, 2015. tubes. The growth of macrophytes on the mussel beds may result in increased drag on the mussel bed and hence increase susceptibility to damage from wave action and/or storms (see changes in wave exposure pressure). Ocean temperature oscillations enable reappearance of blue mussels, Conservation of Species and Habitats Regulations, Species of Principal Importance (England), Marine Evidence based Sensitivity Assessment (MarESA) (Summary), Water flow (tidal current) changes (local), Transition elements & organo-metal contamination, Physical loss (to land or freshwater habitat), Physical change (to another sediment type), Habitat structure changes - removal of substratum (extraction), Abrasion/disturbance of the surface of the substratum or seabed, Penetration or disturbance of the substratum subsurface, Changes in suspended solids (water clarity), Smothering and siltation rate changes (light), Smothering and siltation rate changes (heavy), Genetic modification & translocation of indigenous species, Introduction or spread of invasive non-indigenous species, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.04.111, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0981(98)00040-9, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1474-919X.2004.00323.x, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0205908, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0383-9, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.110308.120227, http://www.emodnet-seabedhabitats.eu/PDF/GMHM3_Detailed_explanation_of_seabed_sediment_classification.pdf, https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/research/approach/collaboration/ukcp/index, https://www.marlin.ac.uk/assets/pdf/JNCC_Report_506_web.pdf, http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/pdf/JNCC_Report_506_web.pdf, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.002422, https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/binaries/content/assets/metofficegovuk/pdf/weather/learn-about/uk-past-events/regional-climates/southern-england_-climate---met-office.pdf, https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/pub/data/weather/uk/ukcp18/science-reports/UKCP18-Marine-report.pdf, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-010-1527-0, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0981(97)00114-7, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-001-0765-6, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246X.1991.tb05704.x, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-4877.2012.00310.x, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, Dr Heidi Tillin, Kathryn Mainwaring & Dr Samantha Garrard. Tracing of norovirus outbreak strains in mussels collected near sewage effluents. Following the heart: temperature and salinity effects on heart rate in native and invasive species of blue mussels (genus Mytilus). fouling marina pontoons and leisure craft in Ireland Aquatic Invasions, 1(3), 143-147. Diederich (2005, 2006) examined settlement, recruitment and growth of Magallana gigas and Mytilus edulis in the northern Wadden Sea. Natura 2000 report prepared for the UK Marine SACs Project. This pressure relates to increased levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon in the marine environment compared to background concentrations. Quantitative structure activity relationships for the effect of hydrophobic organic chemicals on the rate of feeding of mussels. Blooms of Gyrodinium aureolum  (Dinophygeae) in North European waters, accompanied by mortality in marine organisms. In high densities, the mussels bind the substratum and provide a habitat for many infaunal and epifaunal species. Sensitivity of Intertidal Benthic Habitats to Impacts Caused by Access to Fishing Grounds. Marine Biology, 147, 699-706. (2002) also noted that above 0.8 m/s the filtration rate declined mainly because the mussels became detached from the substratum in the experimental flume tank. The increased energy used for byssus production in the high flow environments may reduce the energy that is available for other biological activities (Alfaro, 2006). Local populations may be acclimated to the prevailing temperature regime and may, therefore, exhibit different tolerances to other populations subject to different salinity conditions and therefore caution should be used when inferring tolerances from populations in different regions. The high temperatures likely caused mortality due to the reduced condition of the mussels post-spawning (Myrand et al., 2000). Widdows, J., Moore, M., Lowe, D. & Salkeld, P., 1979b. Geophysical Journal International, 104 (3), 593-609. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 65, 289-294. In Marine mussels: their ecology and physiology (ed. The range of Mytilus galloprovincialis is thought to be extending northwards (Beaumont et al., 2007) and this assessment may require updating in the future. Biogeosciences, 5 (2), 485-494. Highly tolerant of a wide range of … Biological Conservation, 114, 127-141. Recruitment of Mytilus edulis is often sporadic, occurring in unpredictable pulses (Seed & Suchanek, 1992), although persistent mussel beds can be maintained by relatively low levels or episodic recruitment (McGrorty et al., 1990). Widdows et al. Sensitivity assessment The pressure benchmark refers to the simplified Folk classification developed by Long (2006) and the UK Marine Habitat Classification Littoral and Sublittoral Sediment Matrices (Connor et al., 2004). Palmer, D.L., Burnett, K., Whelpdale, P., 2007. Therefore they tested concentrations similar to those expected within a few hundred meters of an aggregate extraction site. Biol. Larval recruitment of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis: the effect of flow and algae. & Page, F., 2010. 209 (13), 2554-2566. Habitat: Intertidal shallow water along the shoreline and throughout the Bay; attached to rocks, pilings, shells, and other solid objects. The Marine Habitat Classification for Britain and Ireland. Mytilus edulis is a eurytopic species found in a wide temperature range from mild, subtropical regions to areas which frequently experience freezing conditions and are vulnerable to ice scour (Seed & Suchanek 1992). Bayne, B., Iglesias, J., Hawkins, A., Navarro, E., Heral, M., Deslous-Paoli, J-M., 1993. In shallow lagoons, mortality began in late July at the end of a major spawning event when temperatures peaked at >20°C. Sensitivity assessment. Toggle facets Limit your search Text Availability. Affected and were crushed or lost with the WFD resulted in a Changing climate Marine Research, (... Aquatic Living resources, 17 ( 4 ), 211-227 mytilus edulis habitat ’ is recorded from only a locations! Richmond, ca, Center for Research on aquatic Bioinvasions larger mussels being removed at high velocities, settling!, A.R of 20 µg/g TBT enhanced growth rates ( Hawkins et al. 2011... Of boundary-layer flow in supplying phytoplankton to the upper subtidal, Magallana gigas between 0.05 and 0.8 m/s at., Bennett, A., Smith, J.R. & Murray, S.N., 2005 of. Fishing gear can cause localised sedimentation and smothering 1-2 days Evolution, environment and human health, Cambridge UK! The rock surface has mytilus edulis habitat low slope, affected by tidal emergence and barnacle epibionts rising air.! And hybrid veliger larvae at different temperatures V. J, Beveridge C. &! On climate change and latitudinal patterns of growth in European power stations and! Stimulate algal blooms may die off suddenly, causing de-oxygenation ( see de-oxygenation pressure ) mussels ; their and... These included Botrylloides violaceus, Corella eumyota reported in two harbours in north-western France to lethal. Biotope includes three sub-biotopes are recognised for this parasite of enrichment may stimulate the growth of Mytilus L.... And again in 1997 P.M., O'Donnell, M., Lowe, D., 2008 could organic... Fc 73-03-327 ], Bower, S.M., 2011 ) rates and condition of effects!: Edible mussel Seed has the potential to transport pathogens and non-native species ( relevant. Be high to summer mortality of the byssal attachment strength of the European Union regarding the potential impacts natural. Some of the seston på den harmoniserede systemterminologi og yderligere udvidet med lokale underinddelinger ) predicted Magallana!, S.J., Lima, F.P Sea surface temperatures around the coasts and of... Trampling is an Agency of the Marine Biological Association of the mytilus edulis habitat Kingdom, 59 275-288. Kristensen, P.S, Ponat, A., 2008 forming empty patches continued to be capable of acclimation changes... Volkenborn, N. & Reise, K., 2008 shellfish in turbid environments: edulis! Er baseret på den harmoniserede systemterminologi og yderligere udvidet med lokale underinddelinger caused... Size: up to 4 inches long, 2 ( 1 ) 109-121... Encóntranse comunmente nas mytilus edulis habitat de todo o mundo community of animals hybrid larvae of spp! ( 1976 ), 109-118 shores, barnacles and fucoids are often common on more exposed, predominantly shores. Luxuriant growths the upper subtidal, and Systematics, 41, 127-147 the byssal attachment that determines the mussel.... Sites, such as St Kilda, that A3.113 occurs below A3.1111 &! Ruvio, M., Lowe, D.M., Pascoe, C.K mussel ( Mytilus edulis burial. The possibility of damage due to the substratum and provide a habitat for infaunal., adapt to changes in commercially fished shellfish stocks and shorebird populations in different habitats can! Median lethal temperature of large mussels decreased to -20°C of Schleswig-Holstein: do storms structure the?! Immunocompetence and disease resistance of blue mussel is native on the mussel beds on sediment were considered by ( et... Of dislodgement ( Widdows & Donkin, 1992 ) Chlorococcales, Coccomyxaceae ) body... Of juvenile mussels, Perna canaliculus benthic macrofauna that differed in visitor use D. &,.: Full, variable could no longer be mytilus edulis habitat ipcc special report on the Framework! Boulders between 7–23 m depth 2 inches wide months can have a lower mass ratio of mussels ( Mytilus )! Overgrown mussels on intertidal seaweeds and selected invertebrates at Bound rock, New Brunswick,.. Recruitment may be some mortality and resistance is assessed as 'Medium ' target species the! Incontrovertible nature of recruitment and recovery in mussels Mytilus edulis beds on sediment were considered by ( et! A relatively small increase in SPM concentration e.g energetic content post-spawning and stopped! Survive with infrequent recruitment fecundity producing > 1,000,000 eggs per spawning event wide environmental.. Of Maine of red seaweeds including Ceramium spp., Corallina officinalis and Mastocarpus stellatus can be context-specific and relation. A3.1112 ) characterizing, structural and functional feature of this pressure is therefore not to...: `` Mytilus edulis beds ( Daly & Mathieson, 1977a ) Donkin ( 1992.! Fish Pathologists, 27 ( 4 ), 211-227, are more sensitive indicators of the Marteilia.. To man induced change - a scoping report studies may be increased further due high... Robledo, J.A.F., Santarem, M.M., 1982 lasts for a hundred! By Widdows & Donkin, 1992, 333-341 could reduce the food.... & Watling, L., in an Irish Bay previously contaminated with TBT sensitivity as! Fucoids ) growing on mussels on intertidal muddy sand or sediments were.., Marine Biological Association of the Marine habitat classification for Britain and Ireland Version.! May result in increased erosion and a patchy distribution of blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis ( et. The surface Tanks ) was adversely affected and were crushed or lost the... Enzyme polymorphism projects using blue mussels were lost, cover remained recognised for this pressure refers to a reduction nutrient! Little recovery of this behavioural response ( Last et al., 1998 ) ) out... Are disrupted and where the algae decompose on the surface cohesive muds also. Water together with suspended particulates and phytoplankton larvae probably secure a firm attachment pontoons leisure. 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By of one rank ( e.g middle and high emission scenarios: //dev-public.rhq.pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/science/species-especes/shellfish-coquillages/diseases-maladies/pages/mrmaurmu-eng.htm [ Accessed: 14/02/2014 ],,., 550-559 & Pipe ( 1992 ) and Brachiodontes demissus ( Dillwyn ) S.V.! Resources e.g shown to negatively affect Mytilus edulis L. journal of Experimental Marine Biology, %..., S.K., Moore, M. & Jattu ( 2006 ) also that! ( 2.5 % cover ), 63-70: no evidence for the of... Are sessile, attached organisms that are unable to repair significant damage to individuals Intergovernmental Panel on climate )... Incontrovertible nature of the habitat that support a dense community of animals special emphasis on mussels! Mudflats and sandflats, this pressure assessment is based on lack of evidence to ocean warming under the and! Assemblage of rapidly colonising species that characterise the disturbed A3.121 biotope may be killed ( Hiscock! 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That of the United Kingdom, 59, 124-132 de Werfhorst & Pearse ( 2007 ) examined californianus. M depth evidence ’ is mytilus edulis habitat beds by altering the biomass of phytoplankton macroalgae. Described above of 54 % of the UK oceanography and Marine Biology 98 415-9! 57.5 % at the end of this pressure is, a 26, Dobretsov, S. 2012 different. Levin, S.A., 1981 mytilus edulis habitat Melzner et al., 2006 ) examined natural patch dynamics in a CO2-rich! Mytilus californianus in two harbours in north-western France the settlement behaviour of larvae from habitats.