It was not discovered until the turn of the 20th century, as a result of archaeological expeditions to Chinese Turkestan. An Introduction. Tocharian denotes two closely related languages of the Indo-European family, denoted simply Tocharian A and Tocharian B. Agni) in the middle, and Turfan (Chin. "The Distribution of Data in Word Lists and its Impact on the Subgrouping of Languages", In: Christine Preisach, Hans Burkhardt, Lars Schmidt-Thieme, Reinhold Decker (Editors): Václav Blažek (2007), "From August Schleicher to Sergej Starostin; On the development of the tree-diagram models of the Indo-European languages". In Tocharian B there are also commercial documents, such as monastery records, caravan passes, medical and magical texts, and the like. [6][34], Phonetically, Tocharian languages are "centum" Indo-European languages, meaning that they merge the palatovelar consonants (*ḱ, *ǵ, *ǵʰ) of Proto Indo-European with the plain velars (*k, *g, *gʰ) rather than palatalizing them to affricates or sibilants. Tocharian languages, Tocharian also spelled Tokharian, small group of extinct Indo-European languages that were spoken in the Tarim River Basin (in the centre of the modern Uighur Autonomous Region of Sinkiang, China) during the latter half of the 1st millennium ad. Winter, Werner (1998). Omissions? Variation and change in Tocharian B is a systematic and extensive treatment of linguistic variants attested in this most archaic of the two Tocharian languages, which are known through manuscripts from the first millennium CE found along the Northern Silk Road in Xīnjiāng, China. II: Thematic without suffix < PIE root thematic. 2001. Non-finite: active participle, mediopassive participle, present gerundive, subjunctive gerundive. How-To Tutorials; Suggestions; Machine Translation Editions; Noahs Archive Project; About Us 3.1. The branch consists of the two languages Tocharian A and Tocharian B, which were mutually unintelligible. The present-tense endings are almost completely divergent between Tocharian A and B. Furthermore, each set of endings comes with both active and mediopassive forms. The presence of manuscripts in B mixed with those in A in the monasteries of the east can be accounted for by ascribing the B manuscripts to a new missionary initiative by Buddhist monks from the west. The subject matter of the texts suggests that Tocharian A was more archaic and used as a Buddhist liturgical language, while Tocharian B was more actively spoken in the entire area from Turfan in the east to Tumshuq in the west. 257-269. For example, the Tocharian word yakwe (Toch B), yuk (Toch A) "horse" < PIE *eḱwos is declined as follows:[2]. Likewise, some of the verb classes show independent origins, e.g. There were three known languages in the branch, named A, B and C. References Though quite similar, Tocharian A … Sacred , Anthem. [4] They are known from manuscripts dating from the 5th to the 8th century AD, which were found in oasis cities on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin (now part of Xinjiang in northwest China) and the Lop Desert. The theory was undermined in the early 20th century by the discovery of Hittite, a centum language in a relatively eastern location, and Tocharian, which was a centum language despite being the easternmost branch. This page was last changed on 6 June 2020, at 17:58. Most of attested Tocharian was written in the Tocharian alphabet, a derivative of the Brahmi alphabetic syllabary (abugida) also referred to as North Turkestan Brahmi or slanting Brahmi. According to Greek and Latin historical sources, the Tocharoi (Greek Tócharoi, Latin Tochari, Sanskrit tukhāra) inhabited the basin of the upper Oxus River (modern Amu Darya) in the 2nd century Bc, having been driven there from an earlier home in Kansu (immediately east of Sinkiang). A common Proto-Tocharian language must precede the attested languages by several centuries, probably dating to the late 1st millennium BC. Notes for Dictionary: general - Common Tocharian or Tocharian A words italic - Tocharian B words á, í, ú - long [a], [i] and [u] sounds ç - a sound like in Sanskrit açva or in English cashier ä - a sound similar to German Käse (cheese) or English band ñ - a soft [n'] sound s' - palatal [s] usually written as a little line over it n., m., r., s. - cerebral sounds Tocharian literature, written in a northern Indian syllabary derived… ; Category:Terms derived from Tocharian A: Categories with terms derived from Tocharian A in various specific languages. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 2009, ISBN 978-3-447-05814-8. Tocharian is documented in manuscript fragments, mostly from the 8th century (with a few earlier ones) that were written on palm leaves, wooden tablets and Chinese paper, preserved by the extremely dry climate of the Tarim Basin. [2] Tocharian Language • Remains of an Indo-European language generally referred to as Tochari-an were found in the Tarim Basin, a large arid lowland located in present-day Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Republic (north of India, northeast of the Tibetan plateau, formerly called ‘Chinese Turkestan’). A Sanskrit–Tocharian B bilingual inscription appears to equate Sanskrit tokharika and Tocharian B kucaññe ‘Kuchean.’ However, the rest of the context remains obscure. or Tokharian languages Two extinct Indo European languages, Tocharian A and Tocharian B, formerly spoken in the Tarim River Basin in China. This category has the following 4 subcategories, out of 4 total. The language of Kucha, as evidenced by surviving manuscripts and inscriptions, was Kuśiññe (Kushine) also known as Tocharian B or West Tocharian, an Indo-European language. The Turfan and Tarim Basins were populated by speakers of Tocharian languages, with "Europoid" mummies found in the region. Journal of the American Oriental Society 67, 33-53. Especially noteworthy is the wide development of the mediopassive form in r (as in Italic and Celtic)—e.g., Tocharian A klyoṣtär, B klyaustär ‘is heard.’ The third person plural preterite (past) ends in -r, similar to Latin and Sanskrit perfect forms and the Hittite preterite. Sieg and Müller, reading this name as toxrï, connected it with the ethnonym Tócharoi (Ancient Greek: Τόχαροι, Ptolemy VI, 11, 6, 2nd century AD), itself taken from Indo-Iranian (cf. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. They are now extinct. Writing was found from around the 5th century to the 8th century AD. The Tocharian Subjunctive: A Study in Syntax and Verbal Stem Formation (Brill's Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics, Band 8) European languages - Der TOP-Favorit Im Folgenden finden Sie als Käufer die absolute Top-Auswahl an European languages, wobei Platz 1 den TOP-Favorit darstellt. As in Sanskrit, Ancient Greek and (to a lesser extent) Latin, there are independent sets of classes in the indicative present, subjunctive, perfect, imperative, and to a limited extent optative and imperfect, and there is no general correspondence among the different sets of classes, meaning that each verb must be specified using a number of principal parts. Tocharian A has no descendants or varieties listed in Wiktionary's language data modules. [47] Some examples: athematic and thematic present tenses, including null-, -y-, -sḱ-, -s-, -n- and -nH- suffixes as well as n-infixes and various laryngeal-ending stems; o-grade and possibly lengthened-grade perfects (although lacking reduplication or augment); sigmatic, reduplicated, thematic and possibly lengthened-grade aorists; optatives; imperatives; and possibly PIE subjunctives. The following shows the thematic endings, with their origin: In traditional Indo-European studies, no hypothesis of a closer genealogical relationship of the Tocharian languages has been widely accepted by linguists. The agglutinative secondary case endings in the two languages likewise stem from different sources, showing parallel development of the secondary case system after the Proto-Tocharian period. An example is eṅkwe (Toch B), oṅk (Toch A) "man", which belongs to the same declension as above, but has oblique singular eṅkweṃ (Toch B), oṅkaṃ (Toch A), and corresponding oblique stems eṅkweṃ- (Toch B), oṅkn- (Toch A) for the secondary cases. Documents date back to AD 500–700. In phonology, Tocharian differs greatly from almost all other Indo-European languages in that all the Indo-European stops of each series fall together, resulting in a system of three (voiceless) stops, p, t, and k (the same merger is found, independently, in some Anatolian languages). [10], Most scholars reject Walter Bruno Henning's proposed link to Gutian, a language spoken on the Iranian plateau in the 22nd century BC and known only from personal names.[11]. As a result, it has been suggested that Tocharian A was a liturgical language, no longer spoken natively, while Tocharian B was the spoken language of the entire area. (Ed.) or Tokharian languages Two extinct Indo European languages, Tocharian A and Tocharian B, formerly spoken in the Tarim River Basin in China. The following table lists the reconstructed phonemes in Tocharian along with their standard transcription. Tocharian, also spelled Tokharian (/ t ə ˈ k ɛər i ən / or / t ə ˈ k ɑːr i ən / ;Chinese: 吐火羅語), is an extinct branch of the Indo-European language family, known from manuscripts dating from the 6th to the 8th century AD found in oasis cities on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin (now part of Xinjiang in northwest China). Tocharian is not closely related to other branches of Indo-European. Discovery and documentation ... sure which language(s) the famed mummies spoke. the language of the Tocharians, an extinct Indo-European language, having an eastern dialect (Tocharian A) and a western dialect (Tocharian B), records of which date from a.d. c600–c1000. The most reasonable likelihood for the hybridisation process is that a specific group took over other groups, and they all adopted the most dominant language variant whilst also picking up influences from the later arrivals. However, lexicostatistical and glottochronological approaches suggest the Anatolian languages, including Hittite, might be the closest relatives of Tocharian. Transcription and references have been transferred from the "Text and Reference Database of the Tocharian A Language" (Gerd Carling, Lund University) (funded by the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation and SCAS). Despite its historical position on the eastern frontier of the Indo-European world and the obvious lexical influence of Indo-Aryan and Iranian, Tocharian seems more closely allied linguistically with languages of the Indo-European northwest, particularly Italic and Germanic, in the matter of common vocabulary and certain verbal categories. They were spoken on the northern side of the Tarim Basin (now in Xinjiang, China). The two languages, usually referred to as ‘Tocharian B’ and ‘Tocharian A,’ are attested by predominantly Buddhist manuscript fragments found in the three regions of Kuča (Chin. Moscow, 1986. Some modern Chinese words may ultimately derive from a Tocharian or related source, eg. Gamkrelidze T., Ivanov V. Indo-European Language and Indo-Europeans. The result was a new hypothesis, following the wave model of Johannes Schmidt, suggesting that the satem isogloss represents a linguistic innovation in the central part of the Proto-Indo-European home range, and the centum languages along the eastern and the western peripheries did not undergo that change. ", "One hundred years of re-reconstruction: Hittite, Tocharian, and the continuing revision of Proto-Indo-European", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, "The Problem of Tocharian Origins: An Archaeological Perspective", "Language Log » Tocharian C: its discovery and implications", "The Formal Kharoṣṭhī script from the Northern Tarim Basin in Northwest China may write an Iranian language", "Remarks on the Paintings from the Buddhist Monastery of Fayaz Tepe (Southern Uzbekistan)", "Change of suspension systems of daggers and swords in eastern Eurasia: Its relation to the Hephthalite occupation of Central Asia", "THE HEPHTHALITES: ICONOGRAPHICAL MATERIALS", "Mapping the Origins and Expansion of the Indo-European Language Family", Tocharian A manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection, "Everything you always wanted to know about Tocharian", Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts, glottothèque - Ancient Indo-European Grammars online, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tocharian_languages&oldid=994451227, Language articles with unreferenced extinction date, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [48][49][50] Yānqí, Uyg. This naming has remained, although the names Agnean and Kuchean have been proposed as a replacement. (That the native language of Loulan was Tocharian was first suggested by Thomas Burrow in his The Language of the Kharoṣṭhī Documents from Chinese Turkestan, 1937.) New Collegiate Dictionary. [16][17][18], Nevertheless, it remains the standard term for the language of the Tarim Basin manuscripts. Language in time and space: A Festschrift for Werner Winter on the occasion of his 80th birthday. Language. Tocharian probably died out after 840 when the Uyghurs, expelled from Mongolia by the Kyrgyz, moved into the Tarim Basin. Samples of the language have been discovered at sites in Kucha and Karasahr, including many mural inscriptions. A claimed find of ten Tocharian C texts written in Kharoṣṭhī script has been discredited. One group of travel permits for caravans can be dated to the early 7th century, and it appears that other texts date from the same or from neighbouring centuries. This is thought to stem from the generalization of n-stem adjectives as an indication of determinative semantics, seen most prominently in the weak adjective declension in the Germanic languages (where it cooccurs with definite articles and determiners), but also in Latin and Greek n-stem nouns (especially proper names) formed from adjectives, e.g. As suggested by the above discussion, there are a large number of sets of endings. I: Athematic without suffix < PIE root athematic. 379-390. Old Chinese *mjit (蜜; mì) "honey", from proto-Tocharian *ḿət(ə) (where *ḿ is palatalized; cf. Introduction to Tocharian Ronald I. Kim Adam Mickiewicz University ronald.kim@yahoo.com 1. language. Tocharian, also spelled Tokharian (/təˈkɛəriən/ or /təˈkɑːriən/), is an extinct branch of the Indo-European language family. Tocharian is, at its core, a centum language - just like Indo-European languages in the west - despite its Far Eastern setting. Both root and suffix ablaut is still well-represented, although again with significant innovations. [7], The existence of the Tocharian languages and alphabet was not even suspected until archaeological exploration of the Tarim Basin by Aurel Stein in the early 20th century brought to light fragments of manuscripts in an unknown language, dating from the 6th to 8th centuries AD.[9]. Class vi is not so much a coherent class as an "irregular" class with all verbs not fitting in other categories. Besides the Buddhist and Manichaean religious texts, there were also monastery correspondence and accounts, commercial documents, caravan permits, medical and magical texts, and one love poem. "Tocharian." There also exist 3rd-century Loulan Gāndhārī Prakrit documents that appear to borrow words from a closely related language referred to as Tocharian C, theoreticized by Klaus T. Schmidt. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Tocharian A is the easternmost Indo-European language, being spoken in ancient times in city-oases of Central Asia. Their conclusions appear to have discredited Schmidt's Tocharian C claims. [31], In 2018, ten texts written in the Kharoṣṭhī alphabet from Loulan were published and analyzed in the posthumous papers of Tocharologist Klaus T. Schmidt as being written in Tocharian C.[32][33] Schmidt suggested that the language was closer to Tocharian B than to Tocharian A. Latin Catō (genitive Catōnis) literally "the sly one"[citation needed] < catus "sly", Greek Plátōn literally "the broad-shouldered one" < platús "broad".[2]. Tocharian B likewise forms the imperfect by adding i onto the present indicative stem, while Tocharian A has 4 separate imperfect formations: usually ā is added to the subjunctive stem, but occasionally to the indicative stem, and sometimes either ā or s is added directly onto the root. Tǔlǔfān) in the east. Get Book . Tocharian 3.1.1. Leiden/Boston: Brill (Brill’s Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics 8). All except preterite class VI have a common set of endings that stem from the PIE perfect endings, although with significant innovations. Home; Books; Search; Support. The Tocharian verb reflects the Indo-European verbal system both in stem formations and in personal endings. They were spoken on the northern side of the Tarim Basin (now in Xinjiang, China). Author of. Kùchē) in the west, Qarašahr (Chin. Erster Band: A-J. A body of loanwords and names found in Prakrit documents from the Lop Nor basin have been dubbed Tocharian C (Kroränian). The Tocharian (sometimes Tokharian) languages (/təˈkɛəriən/ or /təˈkɑːriən/), also known as Agnean-Kuchean or Kuchean-Agnean, are an extinct branch of the Indo-European language family spoken by inhabitants of the Tarim Basin, the Tocharians. Its words and roots are not directly attested in any written works, but have been reconstructed through the comparative method, which finds regular similarities between languages that cannot be explained by coincidence or word-borrowing, and extrapolates ancient forms from these similarities.. Tocharian B, however, is found throughout the range and in both religious and secular texts. However a smaller amount was written in the Manichaean script in which Manichaean texts were recorded. (Most other languages with the mediopassive have generalized one of the two.). Old Persian tuxāri-, Khotanese ttahvāra, and Sanskrit tukhāra), and proposed the name "Tocharian" (German Tocharisch). 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Bronze Age and early Iron Age Peoples of Eastern Central Asia C is! With independent vowel letters or vowel diacritics the distinct Tocharian branch, an own branch of the Basin... Their declensional and conjugational endings, although the names Agnean and Kuchean have been proposed as a to. The prefix is often compared with the ancient Tocharians and Tocharian B was more!, een kleine groep vrouwen, of alle vrouwen were discovered in 1974 in Yanqi there! The precise nature of the Turpan area large number of classes, according to conjugation... `` the Word for ‘ Honey ’ in Chinese, Tocharian a: Categories with terms derived from PIE... Latter language particularly was the source of Buddhist terminology ) its Far Eastern setting Ramat, Giacalone and... Delivered right to your inbox 20th century, as a result of archaeological expeditions to Chinese Turkestan source for... The Indo-European verbal system both in stem formations and in both religious secular... Brill ( Brill ’ s article, the two languages Tocharian a has no descendants or listed! Infixed nasal, from PIE infixed nasal verbs compared with the mediopassive still reflects the distinction between tocharian a language! Academia.Edu is a platform for academics to share research papers standard transcription in Old Chinese: Chariots, chariot,... With terms derived from Tocharian a: Categories with terms derived from Tocharian a is the main of! To get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox apparent self-designation ārśi appears in Tocharian along with standard..., later, Sanskrit ( the latter language particularly was the source of terminology. Endings are still found, although with significant innovations various specific languages ] 21. B was much more conservative, directly reflecting the PIE variation between -r in the Manichaean in... Common set of vowels, but they often do not correspond to other. Innovated in divergent ways, with `` Europoid '' mummies found in Manichaean. Is based on phonetic similarity, named a, B and C. References the Anatolian languages, Hittite. Of Indo-European B shows an internal chronological development ; three linguistic stages have been detected forms which mutually. Idaho, Moscow PIE root thematic class vi is not closely related to branches! By topic, such as `` family '' or `` Chemistry '' in: Indogermanischer. Sprachmaterialien ( TITUS ): present, preterite, imperfect in Kharoṣṭhī has! Which language ( s ) the famed mummies spoke Agnean and Kuchean have been discovered at sites Kucha! This includes the root ablaut of subjunctive classes i and v, which were lost the... Important source materials tocharian a language information on the development of the Tarim Basin ( now in Xinjiang, China.! For your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox Eastern Central Asia did... The addition of postpositions to the 8th century AD Ramat, Giacalone Anna and Paolo Ramat ( )... Colophon referred to the 8th century AD following 4 subcategories, out of 4 total Tocharian appears! Development ; three linguistic stages have been proposed as a replacement nature of the Tocharoi is based on et. At least one month ), chariot gear, and therefore preserved archaic... Tocharians and Tocharian B preserves the following Categories: [ 2 ] the theory is supported the. Few weights and measures and the name `` Tocharian '' an inherent /a/! And in both religious and secular texts and generally restricted to the historical Phonetics of.! Sanskrit ( the latter language particularly was the source of Buddhist terminology ) in!: active participle, present gerundive, subjunctive gerundive samples of the Turpan area a Categories... Is difficult to explain, probably dating to the 8th century AD toxrï appears to the... -I, effaced in most Indo-European languages V. Indo-European language family not closely related to other Indo-European! Has a vowel reflecting long PIE he thus inferred that the Proto-Indo-European palatovelars true! With significant innovations 1768 first Edition with your subscription is generally built by adding onto... Vertaling: laat ME NU TOCH NIET ALLEEN by Johan Verminnen from by! And Tocharian B, however, lexicostatistical and glottochronological approaches suggest the Anatolian,... Consists of the verb verbal conjugation system is quite conservative, directly reflecting the PIE variation -r...