The communication model doesn’t stop at the receiver, it qualifies the possibility that the receiver might engage in a word-of-mouth communication. In advertising terms, to borrow psychologist George Mandler's words (1979), the crux of the attitudinal approach is "heat" and "light." In brand recognition, the prospective buyer recognizes the brand first, e.g., in-store, then associates (actually recalls) the category need whereupon a mental check of category need status is made. A further limitation is imposed by (iv) high effective frequency, which is discussed in connection with media scheduling. In order to take action such as purchase of a brand, a target audience individual must: (1) have the category need, i.e., be "in the market" for the product class; (2) be aware of the brand as an option within the class; (3) have at least a tentatively favorable brand attitude toward it; (4) intend to buy it, although this intention may be quite latent or subconscious until the individual is in the purchase situation; and (5) experience no barriers to purchase facilitation, such as distribution unavailability or inability to meet the price or pricing terms. The copywriter is asked to identify the specific message points to be learned -- be these in the verbal copy or implied in the visual portrayal. Many advertising agencies and their client companies continue to rely blindly on top-of-mind brand recall, when many brands are in fact chosen by brand recognition at the point-of-purchase, not by recall prior to the purchase situation. Thorson, E. and M.L. Ufuk Ay, KTO Karatay University, Marcus Opitz, University of Vienna Similarly, by identifying the main motivation, it is comparatively straightforward to decide whether the predominant executional focus of the ad should be informational, or transformational. It then discusses the expanded triad, considering multiple aspects of the source, the message, and consumer-recipients. Advertisements are communicated through various mass media, such as newspapers, magazines, television, radio, and the internet. and L. Percy (1983), Draft chapters for text, Advertising and Promotion Management, New York: McGraw-Rill, available from authors. The processing checklist for presenters identifies presenter characteristics that relate to various communication effects and particularly to the four brand attitude models. Reilly, (1974), "An Exploration of the Effects of Perceived Social and Performance Risk on Consumer Information Acquisition," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Introduction All the promotion techniques are based on communication. For ads based on the informational brand attitude strategy, a rough execution is sufficient for test purposes, because the informational (reason why) message should be apparent regardless of the executional quality of the ad presented to consumers. Harris, R.J., T.M. The processing mechanism associated with visibility, of course, is the expectation that a highly visible presenter will draw attention to the ad and thus make the brand more visible; that is, the presenter will increase brand awareness. Kelly (1953), Communication and Persuasion, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. A full advertising communication model also addresses exposure of advertisements via the media plan. Academic definitions tend to follow the Fishbein type of definition (e.g., Fishbein and Ajzen 1975) in which attitude is conceptualized as overall affect toward the act of buying the brand. The results of the exercise are of immense value to managers and researchers because they help to reduce the mystery (but not the magic) of what creatives are doing. In rare cases when the target audience exhibits mixed levels of involvement or when a single ad is aimed at two target audiences, one of which is high-involved and the other low-involved, then high involvement tactics should be assumed. The communication process is everything advertising is made for. Evaluation or likability in this sense has very limited motivational status; only a few products or brands are bought merely because they are liked. These theories or models attempt to explain and describe, at the individual buyer or consumer level, the process by which advertising communicates with and effectively persuades individuals to take action. Institute of Technology Larry Percy, HEM/CREAMER, Inc. ABSTRACT - A general structure is proposed for constructing models of "the way advertising works" (advertising communication models). All advertising campaigns are aimed at maintaining brand awareness (if not to increase it) and at maintaining brand attitude (if not to change it). All hierarchical level models have one thing in common, which is the fact that they adapt the basic structure of the buying decision-making process, which is based on the AIDA model’s basic structure in three levels: thinking (cognition), feeling (affact), and acting (behavior). TABLE 4 ADVERTISING COMMUNICATION MODELS AND MEDIA SELECTION The respective models eliminate or restrict media selection according to: (i) visual capacity (radio is eliminated for brand recognition models where packages must be shown): (ii) color quality and cost (newspapers are limited for new package brand recognition and for transformational campaigns); and (iii) verbal message capacity (the "short" media of TV, ratio, and outdoor are virtually eliminated for high involvement/informational campaigns). (1972),'Why Three Exposures May Be Enough," Journal of Advertising Research, 12 (December), 11-14. The communication process reaches its end goal when the message has been successfully transmitted, received and understood. Accordingly, a full advertising communication model will specify the two remaining levels: processing and exposure. For the present article, the authors would like to acknowledge the comments of Robert J. Donovan, then visiting associate processor of marketing at New York University, Geraldine Fennell of Fordham University, as well as,research personnel at Ogilvy & Mather/New York and Ogilvy & Mather/Australia.]. How does communication happen? [One could argue that brand awareness is the single universal communication objective. As suggested in the table, the key is not simply repetition of the brand name, but repetition of the association of the brand name with the category need. It is a process in which two or more persons consciously or unconsciously attempt to influence each other through the use of symbols or spoken words. This means that claims in low involvement advertisements should be stated or implied as extremely as possible. 275-321. Particular models eliminate or severely limit the use of certain models. 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