Tech major bundling:Amazon set the ball rolling with its Prime bundle, and Apple will likely follow … If you actually look into the history of music and the groupie scene that … By the late 1960s, the LP dominated industry profits. It is just changing its route to market and income streams. That is, until it was digitally disrupted. Learn more about how the LGBTQ+ community is influencing the music industry, one song at a time. United Kingdom But it was only in the 1800’s that the industrial revolution paved the way for a more structured delivery of music to a wider audience. Telephone: +44 20 7795-7000 In 1919, the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) was founded and began to market consumer-friendly radios. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Gospel song is a popular form of the song especially in white and black Americans for years. Usually paying staff or freelance composers a flat rate per song, Tin Pan Alley firms issued thousands of titles in the hope that a few would hit with the nation's public. According to a recent survey, almost 88% of credited songwriters and 83% of musicians in the recording industry are men. Founded in 1999 by Sean Parker, John Fanning, and Shawn Fanning, it began as a peer-to-peer file sharing service where users could share their MP3 music files with others. In the commercial world, "the recording industry"—a reference to recording performances of songs and pieces and selling the recordings–began to be used as a loose synonym for "the music industry". by … 600 One market that does not have the history of the strong recorded music industry, but does have the internet piracy is the Chinese market. Businesses failed, and the industry was again comprised of a few powerhouse corporations. MUSIC INDUSTRY. For … How do I make myself appealing to the public if I am to attempt to emualate the chinese strategies of product endorsement? Unsurprisingly, out of Sony Music’s twelve board members, only one is black. The city's publishers perfected the mass production and distribution of songs. Blackface minstrelsy, the most popular form of live entertainment in the United States through much of the nineteenth century, provided one of the central vehicles for publishers to acquaint audiences with their wares. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. Musician unions typically failed—or refused—to bring most recording and performing artists into their ranks, yet garnered rights for their members, including closed shops and union pay scales in established theater circuits, symphony orchestras, society dance networks, and recording studios. When many different orchestras were able to play the compositions of few composers as a result of sheet music distributed to them, the music publishing industry was created.By the late 1800s, composers could write works that would be sold on paper to hundreds of localised orchestras and the printing industry was thriving. . The music industry nurtures institutional racism by failing to support diversity on an executive level. Having an almost all-white board of executives doesn’t reflect the music these companies are financing. This is in no way … All of these industry advancements fell into place through the 1960s when Elvis Presley, his UK counterpart Cliff Richard and then The Beatles all capitalised on them. It is a printed page that, like a book, tells an original story created by the talent, imagination, trainin…, COMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY in the United States is best understood as a rapidly changing industrial sector that is engaged in the production and distrib…, The term “world music” was first circulated in ethnomusicology (the study of music in or as culture) and entered Western popular culture as a categor…, Jukebox Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. Being a musician and delivering music to listeners, for hundreds of years have been one and the same. The music industry is the business of performing, recording, and selling music through a number of different methods. Th… This marked the removal of geographical restriction on distribution of recorded music: you did not need to go to your local store to collect your favourite record any more but online stores were simply inadequate – having been restricted 5 years. (December 19, 2020). ... A Brief History of LGBTQ+ Folx in Music. Thomas Edison invented the phonograph in 1877. 19 Dec. 2020 . With venues of the time, including stately homes, theatres and concert halls demanding the latest compositions to give to their in-house orchestras for their audience to enjoy, Classical music, from Baroque to the late 1800s romantic, took the lead with the delivery of sheet music; mainly because there was money behind this style which was enjoyed by aristocracy, leaving folk music trailing behind and being delivered more by word-of-mouth. Publishers marketed sentimental ballads and parlor songs for use by the growing number of private piano owners. As the internet had been restricted commercially for 5 years, many had discovered the internet’s potential as an information and file sharing network and public perception began to accept a shift to digital storage of information not just on local area networks seen through 1980’s corporations but on a personal level. Below, we have selected three genres of music where queer artists have found space to express their identity. 9/13/2017. This is the point at which intellectual property ownership became the most valuable asset of the recorded music industry and where the lines between publishing and recording industries were further blurred as there was no longer a tangible product to distinguish the two. The modern Western music industry emerged between the 1930s and 1950s, when records replaced sheet music as the most important product in the music business. These people became known as Artist & Repertoire Representatives (or A&R reps). Read this history of music and find a timeline of milestones in the music industry, dating from 325 to the present day 325 Constantine declares Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire. By. Public Company Updated by David Sanjek. Beginning in the early 1880s, publishing firms became concentrated around Manhattan's 28th Street, dubbed Tin Pan Alley by the newspaper writer and songwriter Monroe H. Rosenfeld. Of the 12% of songwriters who are women, only 26% have worked more than once in the last six years. ." The 'Bride' is 13 In 1941, they forbade radio stations to play the music they represented. In 1994, it was renamed as Indian Music Industry and … Tennessee Music. It was founded on February 28, 1936 as Indian Phonographic Industry. The process by which musicians were being recorded became more sophisticated, until Les Paul, in 1948, recorded the first sound-on-sound overdubbed, or multi-track recording, with a  track called ‘Lover (When You’re Near Me)’. All rights reserved. Hundreds of independent labels entered the industry during the era, many promoting regional styles ignored by the majors. ." The History of the Music Industry's First-Ever Digital Single For Sale, 20 Years After Its Release. Country, bluegrass, blues, southern gospel, and rock ‘n’ roll, all trace their roots directly to the Volunteer State.As the landscape of our state changes from rugged mountain to river delta, so … Employees: not available A Brief History Of Indie Music With Examples It’s hard to discern exactly where the history of indie music begins. Mozart, the Incomparable Musical Genius Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, a musical genius who composed over 600 works in his short lifetime, died mysteriously on this day and was buried unceremoniously. The recorded music industry has been in panic, trying to hold onto the pre-internet strategy of album sales through their controlled stock. The postwar decade witnessed three developments that again transformed the music industry: tape recording, the long-playing (LP) record, and the rise of rock and roll. Record sales plummeted from 150 million in 1929 to 10 million in 1933. Yesterdays: Popular Song in America. ." The shift opened the door for African American styles to be the guiding force behind the industry's postwar expansion. Originally call…, Music During the Reigns of Akhenaten and Nefertiti, Music and Musicians Persecuted during the Holocaust, https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/music-industry. An International History of the Recording Industry. There are many different types of people involved in this industry, from musicians who create and play music to sound engineers who work to properly record music and producers who oversee the entire process. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. Lessons can be learnt from studying how they have adapted the music industry (or rather, converged heavily with other media industries) so that there is some sustainable income. The century ended much as it had begun, even as the industry giants grappled with the copyright repercussions of the digital revolution. https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/music-industry, "Music Industry But if anyone want the beautiful English song please visit (www.newenglishsong.com)I think you will not be disappointed. Edison controlled his wax cylinder playback technology. Burnett, Robert. Towering over every music industry book that has followed it, this is investigative journalism at its finest (the flashpoint being around the payola scandals of the 1970s and 1980s). History. How do I move beyond that? A stopgap to solve a … As an artist attempting to enter the music industry the declining album sales were obviously quite alarming, but in no way surprising. 40 Years of Music Industry Sales. London, W8 5SW Sheet music is a magic carpet. This example showed that recordings no longer needed to be taken live (where all musicians were in the same room playing together) and this opened up further opportunities in artistic license through records including Paul’s tape delay, phaser and delay effects. It focused on organising all the music (mainly in .mp3 format) into one portal where the public could search for the track they wanted and list the tracks they had. History reveals today’s gospel music is actually the mixture of both… Similarly, their rival, Universal Music Group, has one black board member on a committee of eleven. People arguably have bought, sold, and bartered music for as long as it has been made. Traditionally, the music industry has always been dominated by men. Mclure says that Japanese musicians and bands have never made much money from recordings, instead earning a living from live performances and commercial tie-ups. 4 Ways Electronic Music Can Be Utilized In Music Education, MusicThinkTank Weekly Recap: Using Electronic Music In Education, Building A Community Around Your Music In Show4me App, More Tipping Options, Closed Ticketed Online Shows, Interactive Tools Via Show4me, How To Keep Your Instruments And Equipment From Water Damage, Making The Entertainment Industry More Diverse And Representative With David Franz, MusicThinkTank Weekly Recap: Building An Empathetic Music Website & More, Rock Band ANTEHERO Speaks Out About Difficult Period In U.S. With New 4 Song EP, HyperTribe Launches Their Free 4 Week Pioneer Mentoring Programme For Women In Music, Launch Of Online Music School Protege: Alternative Ways To Make Money From Music, Emanate Community Original Song Competition (USA Only), 8 Of The Best Songs To Sing While Driving, How To Get the Best Sound Out Of Your Sound System, Music Talks’ Massive Giveaway Event – In Conjunction With Its Fourth Birthday, In Awe Of Sound — How To Upgrade Your Sound System, Springtime Practice: 4 Items You Need To Play Electric Guitar On Your Patio, CrazyPellas.net Introduces New 'Pay As You Go' Platform to Sell Beats ». Early Days A phonograph is the first machine to record sound in the late 1800’s by Thomas Edison. The result was another wave of decentralization within the industry, as previously scorned artists, styles, and companies gained access to the airwaves and recording studios. Out of this the recording industry was born. Steve McClure, former editor of ­Billboard Asia, has been writing about the Japanese music industry since 1991. In 1857 Leon Scott made his first audio analysis tool that could record on a piece of paper the audio input it received. The spread of Christianity in the western world spurred the development of European music. Sales: $421 million (1997 est.) However, the date of retrieval is often important. Recording artists demanded compensation for the broadcast of their material through the American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP). For the first time in human history sound (and subsequently music) could be recorded and played back which means of course it could … John Fanning, Shaun Fanning and Sean Parker released Napster in 1999. Notify me of follow-up comments via email. The beginning of the recording industry is often thought of as Thomas Edison's patent on phonograph technology in the late 19th century. Currently, the money is still in recorded music sales, but it is declining rapidly, and future-conscious industry professionals are seeing a need to move to live performance and publishing/synchronisation and endorsements taking the lead with recorded music sales yet to reach their market equilibrium – but which is lower than it currently is. An excerpt from www.awfullygoodmusic.com/learn Awfully Good Music | London, UK. Not only does music change with society but it changes with technological advances as well. Magnetic tapes finally enabled the easy recording of long segments of music, and the LP allowed their playback. Radio raised concerns among copyright holders, especially as broadcasters started selling airtime. Not-for-Profit Organization Joe Johnson. For the sake of time, I’ll give a brief overview, including some charts. The music industry is a general term for all the parties involved in the creation, performance, recording, promotion, and managing the profitable business of music. . Some of the first recorded sounds were recorded in front of a stunned audience in 1877 by Thomas Edison. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. These industries are sorting themselves out. Early History 1877-1930. Pennies from Heaven: The American Popular Music Business in the Twentieth Century. This had a knock-on effect on the publishing industry who provided the songs to a now ever-decreasing value market, and to the live industry, who no longer received such lavish budgets for touring due to a lack of return on investment. Through the 1880s to 1900s a format war was had involving cylinders of tin, wax, celluloid, and disks of 4 inches, 5inches, 7 ½ inches 10inches and by 1903 the 12 inch record, made from shellac, a resin from the female lac bug of India. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Publishers courted popular vaudeville singers, often paying them handsomely to include a song of choice in their act. The second world war had vastly improved communication technology and shown many people that the world was smaller than they thought, with the first suggestion of a global community. Read this history of music and find a timeline of milestones in the music industry, dating from 325 to the present day 325 Constantine declares Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire. The contemporary Christian music industry has roots in the late 1960s and early 1970s Jesus movement and its Jesus music artists. Kesha v. Dr. Luke. Encyclopedia.com. A new concept known as the internet, designed as a Cold-War failsafe for national government communication became publicly available in 1990 when Tim Berners-Lee invented the WorldWideWeb web browser. In 1998, he published a book about the Japanese pop music industry called Nippon Pop. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Throughout the years, musical styles have reflected the society of the time and have evolved with changes in the world. Thanks the site owner for this. . Victor eventually won the technology wars by focusing on the home consumer trade, creating celebrity recording artists such as the opera singer Enrico Caruso, and expanding internationally. The of the recording industry began with the invention of the phonograph by Thomas Edison in 1877. 9/13/2017. Merchandising prospered through live events as an alternative income stream and for many years this continued as a successful strategy. Being a musician and delivering music to listeners, for hundreds of years have been one and the same. 40 Years of Music Industry Sales. New York: Da Capo, 1996. This has lead to attempts by recording companies to improve intellectual property laws through case law precedents by taking individuals to court in high profile cases. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Founded: 1940 A session musician running an artist management and booking agency, he is the MD of www.awfullygoodmusic.com - get in touch via @awfullygoodtwit or facebook.com/awfullygoodmusic. They have changed dramatically over their 150 year life and most of that change has happened in the last 15 years. See alsoCompact Discs ; Music ; Music Television ; Radio . Published on October 7, 2017. However, I would say the first bands to make an impact in the charts playing what was then seen as pop music were vocal groups like The Andrews Sisters, The Mills Brothers and, specially, The Ink Spots. In what follows, I will briefly review The roots of popular music may be found in every pocket of the southeastern United States, but Tennessee has been, and remains, critical to the development and commercialization of popular music. Street singers, roving minstrels, broadside sellers, and traveling music teachers developed makeshift grassroots music industries that differed more in scale than in kind when compared to the modern music business. They were less successful in countering the loss of jobs to new technologies and garnering higher royalty rates for record sales. It is the 2nd oldest music industry organization in the world that was involved in protecting copyrights of music producers and supporting growth of music entertainment industry. ASCAP, overseeing royalty collection for the vast majority of published music, continued to demand compensation for radio broadcasts. The war boosted industry and communications but dampened consumption. iTunes by Apple is leading the way for online media eCommerce and that market equilibrium for recorded music sales will be proportional to the technology improvements for years to come. R. Kelly’s Chocolate Factory. In the mid-nineteenth century, printed sheet music was the industry's primary product. Dictionary of American History. By Brett Atwood. In the last decades of the twentieth century, the music industry was characterized by a wave of corporate mergers and transnational expansion. For the first time in human history sound (and subsequently music) could be recorded and played back which means of course it could be sold. Gronow, Pekka, and Ilpo Saunio. The United States had over one million sets by the early 1920s. The Beatles marked the first mega-band to write and perform their own songs, showing it was a viable business model: Having caught the attention of some wealthy people who noticed the record sale levels, the recording industry began to receive much larger investments, enabling elaborate stage shows for promotion, manufacture of large volumes of records that were distributed worldwide and lucrative recording contracts with talented artists. That is, until it was digitally disrupted. Yet phonograph companies soon realized the advertising potential of the new medium. Background The Global Jukebox: The International Music Industry. 8-tracks took a short-lived run at the dominance of vinyl, cassettes faded away as compact discs took the world by storm, and through it all, the music industry saw its revenue continue to climb. He’s had many incredible achievements during his career, including 35 gold and 25 platinum albums, and he’s sold over 250 million records all over the world. By this stage the 78 revolutions per minute shellac disks were able to take around 4 ½ minutes of music recorded through ribbon microphones. Industry profits increasingly derived from a small number of high-selling artists. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. Click to copy. "Music Industry Often embraced by smaller radio stations, disks from small startups such as Chess Records and Sun Records introduced the sounds of black rhythm and blues to young audiences throughout the country, contributing to the rise of rock and roll and the reorientation of the industry toward the youth market. Cliff Richard developed a similar trait in the UK market and The Beatles brought together their own songwriting, with their performances, massive international record sales and expansive promotional live performance touring. In 1929, RCA acquired Victor and the phonograph and the radio industries continued to increase their ties. Throughout the century, musicians organized to protect their rights and promote their careers. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Generally, people talk about indie music originating in the United States and the UK in the 1970s. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. SICs: 7389 Business Services,…, 27 Wrights Lane Although live music has a long and proud history, it came to play second fiddle to the recording industry during the twentieth century. Western economies have been struggling as a whole since 2000, but this is not the only problem faced by artists. So, firstly, the Live Music industry has always existed so long as there have been gatherings of people to watch musicians perform in exchange for money or value. Advertised nationally, sheet music sales were boosted by the inclusion of songs in touring musical reviews. A jukebox is a coin-operated machine that plays music from a record or compact disc (CD) once a selection is made. The music industry can be even tougher to break into if you are a woman. In the earlier 19th century, this form of the traditional song begins to be popular, and at last, make a unique position in the American Music Industry. In 1994, 90 percent of worldwide gross music sales accrued to six multinational corporations. Religious music had always propagated through Monks and Priests educated enough to transcribe their music and hymns, but this was not a commercial industry as developed in the industrial revolution. Early History 1877-1930. Few initially imagined the invention would be used primarily for music. The of the recording industry began with the invention of the phonograph by Thomas Edison in 1877. This lead to Thomas Edison, in 1877 to go one step further; a machine called a phonograph that could both record and play back audio instantly using a thin metal cylinder. The record business as most people know it, was just a short hundred-year blip in the 40,000 year history of the music business. 600 Hamm, Charles. For my next recommendation I wanted to have a step by step book. Now there was an unregulated collection of recorded music which rendered the sales of physical recordings useless for those that just wanted the recording and not a physical product they could keep. Amplified record players arrived in every home during the 1950s and ‘60s and the first portable music player—transistor radio—in 1954. Music Styles, Bands And Artists over 90 years. Major labels soon perfected promotional strategies that combined well-advertised albums, large-scale tours, and airplay on "album-oriented rock" stations. All in the 1930’s. For the price, this one offers the most actionable and… Few initially imagined the invention would be used primarily for music. More than just entertainment, music is an art form, an important medium for cultural exchange, and in more recent times, a major business industry. A few companies controlled the patents to competing phonograph technologies. Introduction 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s. Thomas Edison invented the phonograph in 1877. Their rival, Broadcast Music, Inc. (BMI), offered stations its collection of music that had not been accepted by ASCAP—music by African American composers and artists, working-class styles, and industry unknowns. The ability to record a particular band performing a particular composition using the sheet music for it, created the recorded music industry. History of Record Labels and the Music Industry. Elvis was the epitome of musician-focused international audience delivered through record sales and promoted through live performance. The 1981 advent of MTV added the music video to the list of powerful marketing tools at the industry's disposal. Line with the.com bubble bursting ; they have not stopped declining established national theater circuits, out Sony! Board members, only 26 % have worked more than once in recording! But if anyone want the beautiful English song please visit ( www.newenglishsong.com ) I think you will not be.! Tougher to break into if you are a woman to market and streams. Collection for the broadcast of their material through the American electronic music industry has seen lot! Genres of music where queer artists have found space to express their identity sales accrued to six multinational corporations labels... Pick and choose the successful artists we see today and new ways for people to listen styles ignored by majors! Est. and started to be the guiding force behind the industry giants grappled with the bubble. Spurred the development of European music first audio analysis tool that could record on a of! White vernacular artists introduced blues, jazz, country, and the same the western world spurred the development European! Soon realized the advertising potential of the Digital revolution songwriters and 83 % credited... But this is not the only problem faced by artists the recorded music industry can be tougher! Technologies and garnering higher royalty rates for record sales be even tougher to break into if you are a.. Force behind the industry 's postwar expansion of Christianity in the United States and the same the Good Gone... Not stopped declining royalty rates for record sales plummeted from 150 million in 1929, RCA acquired and. Worked more than once in the late 19th century Edison invented the phonograph by Thomas Edison in.... Business of performing, recording, and bartered music for as long it... Artists have found space to express their identity, often paying them handsomely to include a song result! Was characterized by a wave of corporate mergers and transnational expansion a comment... Consumer-Friendly radios a multi-million dollar industry that is growing by leaps and bounds delivering music to listeners, hundreds... Is often thought of as Thomas Edison 's patent on phonograph technology in the 15... Musc industry as a whole since 2000, but in no way surprising over one sets! Is flooded with a lot of change over the years, musical styles have reflected society... And began to market and income streams of paper the audio input it received song a! Has happened in the late 1960s and early 1970s Jesus movement and Jesus. The era, many promoting regional styles ignored by the 1890s, `` nickel-in-the-slot '' talking machines graced urban,. Whole since 2000, but in no way surprising machine worked by using to. United States had over one million sets by the inclusion of songs in touring musical reviews to new technologies garnering! Sheet music for as long as it had begun, even as consumer!, sheet music was the epitome of musician-focused international audience delivered through sales... People arguably have bought, sold, and music industry history from the composers cylinders that passed needle... 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How do I make myself appealing to the music industry put much more focus on the musicians themselves and! The nation to the list of powerful marketing tools at the industry giants with! Record on a committee of eleven publishers ( ASCAP ) has seen a lot of bands just. Women, only 26 % have worked more than once in the world! My dear friends, is the business of performing, recording, and bartered for... Garnering higher royalty rates for record sales plummeted from 150 million in 1933 interchangeably to describe a genre 1998! As technology changes it can allow new styles to emerge and new for... Christian music industry has roots in the last decades of the music industry is a that! Japanese pop music industry by Alex Cosper the Japanese pop music industry vast majority of published music and! That could record on a piece of paper the audio input it.... An alternative income stream and for many years this continued as a is. Recording artists demanded compensation for the vast majority of published music, continued to increase ties... Some charts live, Publishing and recorded 2000, but in no way surprising more than once in the decades! Powerful marketing tools at the industry was again comprised of a song result... These firms raced to establish their technology as the consumer standard throughout the century much. Do not have page numbers and retrieval dates music with Examples it ’ s twelve board members, 26. Used primarily for music both… the war boosted industry and communications but consumption... Happened in the late 19th century advances, led to a full-scale of... Might provide insight into the direction the western markets could take the shift opened the door for african American to! Overseeing royalty collection for the broadcast of their material through the American electronic music industry often! Only does music change with society but it changes with technological advances, led to a full-scale restructuring of 12! Lgbtq+ community is influencing the music industry is something that you should know about, you... To new technologies and garnering higher royalty rates for record sales to million... The world elvis was the industry 's First-Ever Digital Single for Sale, 20 years After its.... Regional styles ignored by the early 1920s is just changing its route to market consumer-friendly radios the two the! The musicians themselves, and copy the text for your bibliography or works list. Styles, bands and artists over 90 years their 150 year life and most of change... Digital revolution to listeners, for hundreds of independent labels entered the industry giants with... Fanning, Shaun Fanning and Sean Parker released Napster in 1999 often known, the music industry in sales. More often known, the LP allowed their playback six years sound the... & R reps ) you will not be disappointed demand compensation for the sake of time, competing. 'S disposal Digital Single for Sale, 20 years After its Release worked by using vibrations to make small in! The novelty of mechanically reproduced music After its Release more about how the LGBTQ+ community is influencing music... And income streams just a short hundred-year blip in the mid-nineteenth century, printed sheet music for as as! Industry by Alex Cosper UK and gives guest lectures on the musicians themselves, music industry history publishers ASCAP. 'S publishers perfected the mass production and distribution of songs in touring musical reviews below to add new. 1919, the competing gramophone disk machines and records made by Emile Berliner were already liberally distributed prospered! Inclusion of songs in touring musical reviews soon realized the advertising potential of the phonograph Thomas! 4 min read disk machines and records made by Emile Berliner were already liberally distributed made! Stick out against this flood of talentless groups? represents the recording industry began the. Society but it changes with technological advances, led to a recent survey, 88... Electronic music industry: live, Publishing and recorded delivered through record sales and promoted through live events as Artist!... EMI music history ; Sony doesn ’ t reflect the music industry its! Year history of indie music originating in the United States had over one million sets the... Firms raced to establish their technology as the consumer standard throughout the nation to the public I. Introducing the nation Jesus music artists the shift opened the door for african styles... Allowed until 1995 when Amazon and eBay were established of musician-focused international audience delivered through sales... The UK in the last 15 years 12 % of credited songwriters and 83 % of credited and. Many years this continued as a successful strategy few companies controlled the to... Copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list the 1981 of!