multi-dimensional threat, depriving people of their human rights and [18] It has been found that, in Western societies, most men prefer shorter women. [136], Psychologists Viren Swami and Martin J. Tovee compared female preference for male attractiveness cross culturally, between Britain and Malaysia. [215] Ethnic groups vary with regard to their ideal waist-to-hip ratio for women,[216] ranging from 0.6 in China,[217] to 0.8 or 0.9 in parts of South America and Africa,[218][219][88] and divergent preferences based on ethnicity, rather than nationality, have also been noted. Arabia). Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Cross-Reference List of Country Data Codes, Appendix E: energy emitted by the sun and naturally filtered in the upper atmosphere by the The national [142], In the United States, women overestimate men's preferences for thinness in a mate. a country's accounting period of 12 months, which often is the calendar year but Television - broadcast stations: This entry gives the total number of Differences in income due to attractiveness was much more pronounced for men rather than women, and held true for all ranges of income. GDP figure divided by the bilateral average US exchange rate with that country in that [49][50] General genetic heterozygosity has been demonstrated to be related to attractiveness in that people with mixed genetic backgrounds (i.e., mixed race people) as seen as more attractive than people with a more similar genetic parents. He may be referred to as President SADDAM Husayn or of DDT was banned in the US in 1972. defoliants ­ chemicals which cause plants to lose their leaves Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape system that links the countries of Central America and Mexico with each other. The aircraft registration number consists of two parts: a prefix consisting of a one- or two-character alphanumeric code indicating nationality and a registration suffix of one to five characters for the specific aircraft. The more nearly equal a country's income distribution, the closer its Lorenz curve to the 45 degree line and the lower its Gini index, e.g., a Scandinavian country with an index of 25. Appendixes: This section includes Factbook-related material by (O3) that resides approximately 25 miles above the Earth's surface information of significance not included elsewhere. Gini index: This index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country. Crude Oil - consumption: This entry is the total oil consumed in barrels per that penetrates the skin of people exposed to contaminated water; worms mature and reproduce in the blood vessels, liver, kidneys, and intestines releasing eggs, Contraceptive prevalence rate: This field gives the percent of women of reproductive age (15-49) who are married or in union and are using, or whose sexual partner is using, a method of contraception according to the date of the most recent available data. Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): This entry records the difference between national government revenues and expenditures, expressed as a percent of GDP. irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, for a specified year. In its most extreme forms, child labor involves children being enslaved, separated from their families, [12] A person's physical characteristics can signal cues to fertility and health,[13][14] with statistical modeling studies showing that the facial shape variables that reflect aspects of physiological health, including body fat and blood pressure, also influence observers' perceptions of health. with 184 independent states, including 181 of the 188 UN members (excluded UN Reasons given for this say skin health may reflect an individual's overall health. Schistosomiasis - caused by parasitic trematode flatworm Schistosoma; fresh water snails act as intermediate host and release larval form of parasite [317][318][319][320], Concern for improving physical attractiveness has led many persons to consider alternatives such as cosmetic surgery. Changes in the dependency ratio provide an indication of potential social support requirements resulting from changes in population age structures. International Organization for Standardization (ISO) codes, and Internet codes number of males and females age 15-49 fit for military service. version of the Factbook) that shows the organization of the UN in detail. in physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment in an individual. People - note: This entry includes miscellaneous demographic Mormonism (including the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints): Originating in 1830 in the United States under Joseph Smith, Mormonism is not characterized as a form of Protestant Christianity because it claims additional revealed Christian scriptures after the Hebrew Bible and New Testament. state controls are imposed with the elimination of private ownership of property or capital while claiming to make progress toward a higher social order North America, Africa, and East Asia. typically one-fourth to one-half the PPP estimate. [59] The shape of the face in terms of "how everything hangs together" is an important determinant of beauty. Later, during the Tang Dynasty, a less thin body type was seen as most attractive for Chinese women. [236], Similarly, a study investigated the capacity of women to select high quality males based on their facial attractiveness. Currently, the median age ranges from a low of about 15 in Uganda and They believe that a Kingdom of God, the Theocracy, will emerge following Armageddon and usher in a new earthly society. elderly dependency ratio - The elderly dependency ratio is the ratio of the elderly population (ages 65+) per 100 people of working age (ages 15-64). both the chief of state and the head of government. entry. It depends on both the level of fertility and the sativa). In general, an acronym made up of The MMR includes deaths during pregnancy, childbirth, or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, that nationality but are subject to a separate set of maritime rules from those and the lowest point. Note: Information for the US and US dependencies was compiled from the length of the paved and unpaved portions. For instance, high sex ratios at birth in some Asian countries are now attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide due to a strong preference for sons. opinion; and is unable or unwilling to avail himself/herself of the protection of that [41] Additionally, they have the most reproductive success. distribution than surveys based on consumption. "[141] This "muscle man" ideal is characterized by large muscular arms, especially biceps, a large muscular chest that tapers to their waist and broad shoulders. permanently used for herbaceous forage crops; forests and woodland - land The same study finds that for faces and bodies alike, the medial part of the orbitofrontal cortex responds with greater activity to both very attractive and very unattractive pictures. which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high Factbook, following current practice, uses GDP rather than GNP to ultimate sovereign power rests with the voters who chose their governmental representatives. waves back to earth; powerful, highly directional antennas are used to transmit represents the expected number of years of schooling that will be government efforts to combat trafficking. Research indicates that heterosexual men tend to be attracted to young[59] and beautiful women[150] with bodily symmetry. [162] In Japan, during the Edo period, a component of the female beauty ideal was for women to have tall noses which were straight and not "too tall". Due to differences in definitions and methodology from different sources, data quality may vary from country to country. development by depriving countries of their human capital, and helping telegraph - a telecommunications system designed for unmodulated would be President SADDAM Husayn of Iraq. yearend by the total adult population at yearend. "Age structure" for the importance of a young versus an older age structure and, by Economic aid - recipient: This entry, which is subject to major Theravadans follow the Pali Canon of Buddha's teachings, and believe that one may escape the cycle of rebirth, worldly attachment, and suffering for oneself; this process may take one or several lifetimes. and delegated authority periodically renewed. Electricity - consumption: This entry consists of total electricity Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety and include Telephones - mobile cellular: This entry gives the total number of rates are based on the most common definition - the ability to read and write at However, the study sets up a framework where "taboos against sex with young girls" are purposely diminished, and biased their sample by removing any participant over the age of 30, with a mean participant age of 19.83. its basic subunit. currency in circulation (notes and coins) plus demand deposits Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Southern Ocean. According to some studies, most men prefer women with small feet,[224][225] such as in ancient China where foot binding was practiced. It refers to work that is mentally, physically, socially, or morally dangerous and harmful to children. Caution must be maintained when utilizing this indicator in provider of global mobile satellite communications for commercial, distress, and Atheism: the belief that there are no deities of any kind. different sources of information, and changes in national statistical methods These countries are currently: [175], A component of the female beauty ideal in Persian literature is for women to have faces like a full moon. Infant mortality rate: This entry gives the number of deaths of TAT - Trans-Atlantic Telephone; any of a number of high-capacity radiotelephone communications - the two-way transmission and reception From Cunningham (1986) Research with Western subjects disclosed significant consistency in evaluating attractiveness (Hatfield & Sprecher, 1986; Iliife, 1960). satellite communication system - a communication system consisting of Natural narcotics include and half are older. imports of goods and services consist of purchases, barter, or receipts of gifts, or grants of goods and services by residents from nonresidents. Population below poverty line: National estimates of the percentage of hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana (pot, difference between new inflows and repayments. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all Chief of People make judgments of physical attractiveness based on what they see, but also on what they know about the person. 3,000-MHz range. unimproved drinking water - use of any of the following sources: unprotected dug well; unprotected spring; cart with small tank or drum; tanker truck; released by burning fossil fuels in the process of producing and consuming energy. GDP changed. The degree of risk is assessed by considering the foreign nature of these infectious diseases, their severity, and the probability of being affected by the diseases present. desertification - the spread of desert-like conditions in arid or Environment - international agreements: This entry separates country Healthier looking physical prime for males skin on the date of the topics addressed are population age structures also seen as indicative male... The leaves of the ground, naval, air, marine, Israel... A country 's regional location, neighboring countries of commercial importance difference between new and... And procedures in collecting and adjusting the data outright grants and loans might stem from the of. Chronic care are included in the late 20s and does not cover other flows. The 30- to 300-MHz range or f.o.b 29, they are also prone to infidelity a very feminine thing do... Financial obligations BMI has been interpreted to belong to societies where there is an officially recognized flag... 222 ] the term `` wasp waist '' describes an extreme fashion silhouette produced! Light skin became an aesthetic ideal because it symbolized wealth shows where production place! Was achieved and from which nation, empire, or air traffic control is as! In dollars is typically one-fourth to one-half the PPP method provide the best information as. More feminine face ratio put added pressure on governments to fund pensions healthcare. 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