In 1918, Edwin Armstrong invented the “super-heterodyne receiver” that could select among radio signals or stations and could receive distant signals. It urges the dual reflection comprised in one question: What are we for? TIMELINE OF DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGIES IN THE 21ST CENTURY. Although there were search engines before Google (the first being “Archie” in 1990, then Alta Vista & Yahoo! The modern-shaped paper clip was patented in April 27, 1899 by William Middlebrook of Waterbury, Connecticut, USA. My instinct is to look at those three things every company gets to make choices about—resources, processes and values—through a fresh lens. Only with major improvements in computing and electronic controlling systems in the1980s and ’90s were modern-day drones made possible. As for shareholders, the mantra “innovate or die” is often not true…yet. When the wheel spins, it retains its spatial orientation, and it resists external forces applied to it. 1859 Storage battery – whilst Alessandro Volta (an Italian physicist) invented the first chemical battery in 1800, it’s commercial applications were limited due to cost & efficiency issues. This type of production greatly reduced the amount of time taken to put each car together (93 minutes for a Model T) from its parts, reducing production costs. In 1893, he exhibited this new invention at the Chicago World’s Fair. 1867 The motorcycle arrived! Japanese manufacturers love it and, after licensing the design in 1968, go on to dominate the global market for industrial robots. 2001 The Ipod is released by Apple (& birth of Itunes). VR – Virtual Reality devices. CSR and CSI will also evolve but I think that profit with purpose will prove to be a stronger and more resilient approach than isolated philanthropy. Conceived by George C. Devol Jr. to move and fetch things, the invention gets a lukewarm reception in the United States. Far more likely was the thinking around survival & consolidation as the world’s political landscape shifted with new alliances & borders. In fact, most people around the world didn’t even know what the Internet was. This a plastic made from cellulose (it is derived from plants). This paved the way for the clone industry, which in the end marginalized the influence of Big Blue but spawned the birth of the PC industry as we know it today. They are not all listed here, just the major ones – which have been grouped into two blocks of 70 years. The first commercially viable electric motor was introduced by Zenobe Gramme in the year 1871. The former KGB spy once bemoaned the collapse of the Soviet empire as the “greatest geopolitical catastrophe” of the last century. This book argues that three powerful symbiotic forces (globalization, competitiveness, and governability) are disrupting business in the 21 st century, resulting in an impact on the economic and business environment far greater than the effects of any of these three individually. 2015 Driverless cars which can navigate specific routes and traffic, What society is now experiencing is the “Multiplier” effect. He made the prototype using the key of an old telegraph transmitter. Gyroscopes are used in navigation instruments (for ships, planes, and rockets). Skroupa: There has been a clear rise in stakeholder regard for ESG and CSR within the 21st Century. Globalization, Competitiveness, and Governability: The Three Disruptive Forces of Business in the 21st Century eBook: Ricardo Ernst, Jerry Haar, Haar, Jerry: Amazon.ca: Kindle Store Back then, despite significant academic literature, innovation as an organizational competence and a management discipline was not widely understood. 1956 The video tape recorder (VTR) is invented. 1954 Solar power becomes a reality thanks to Gerald Pearson with his research into lithium-silicon photovoltaic cells. There are, however, tools and practices that massively augment the potential for successfully constructing an innovation capability. Dickson invented the BAND-AID® for his wife, who had many kitchen accidents and needed an easy-to-use wound dressing. It’s important for HR directors to understand these significant shifts – such as the need for increased leadership diversity and a focus on social responsibility – to attract and retain talent in this new world order. A New York inventor, Seeley patented his “Electric flatiron” on June 6, 1882. 1876 Alexander Graham Bell, is the first person to use the telephone (I wonder if he knew how popular it would become)! We have had almost a hundred years of management science spurred by that phenomenon, under-recognized as an innovation, the professional corporate manager, and we thought we knew how the good got great, about winning and quality about sizing, sourcing and optimization, execution and efficiencies. 1970, The home video cassette format is developed by Philips – it was specially made for a TV station in 1970 and available on the consumer market in 1972. Transistors, despite being so small, have made a big impact on the world – forming the basis for most modern technology. It’s a totally different landscape in just about every facet of day to day living & it all happened within a single lifetime! Our 21st Century cities would look very different if it wasn’t for this invention! Conscious capitalism and impact investing (as if there were investment without impact!) Henry Ford (1863-1947) used the first conveyor belt-based assembly-line in his car factory in 1913-14 in Ford’s Highland Park, Michigan plant. The 21 st century workforce and workplace are changing significantly, and many HR directors are evolving their approaches accordingly. 1957 The Soviet Union launches the Sputnik satellite. 1958 Jet air travel becomes a reality. In the last century, the planet’s population doubled twice. As I mentioned earlier, by the end of the 20th century, the developed economies had already fully exhausted their potential innovation pool. 1962 The Compact Cassette is introduced to the world by Philips. MP3 players finally hit the mainstream & sales explode. Innovation subsequently became “fashionable,” at least rhetorically, and no annual report left home without its liberal sprinkling of self-awarded adverbs and adjectives. This will open new realms of strategy and policy. In 1904, John Fleming applied the Edison effect in inventing a two-element electron tube called a diode , and Lee De Forest followed in 1906 with the three-element tube, the triode. 1981 The laptop is created. 1890 The zipper is released to the world by Whitcomb L. Judson, an American engineer from Chicago, Illinois. This website is all about demystifying what being a Digital Nomad means - as well as to provide anyone with the desire to become a Digital Nomad with the means to start their own journey. Philips named this format “Video Cassette Recording” (although it is also referred to as “N1500”, after the first recorder’s model number), VCR started gaining mass market traction in 1975. In a world of disruptive digital business models, augmented workforces, flattened organizations, and an ongoing shift to team-based work practices, organizations are challenging their leaders to step up and show the way forward. to name but a few), it quickly became the dominant player & now represents more than 90% of all internet searches. Buy Globalization, Competitiveness, and Governability: The Three Disruptive Forces of Business in the 21st Century by Ernst, Ricardo, Haar, Jerry online on Amazon.ae at best prices. Without Ethernet there would be no internet & computer networks would still rely on large (& expensive) computer mainframes. 1980 Home computing takes off with the introduction of the Commodore $299 VIC-20. Two weeks after Telstar’s debut, President Kennedy holds a press conference in Washington, D.C., that is broadcast live across the Atlantic. The only question is how much and how well. However, it’s another decade before materials allow the development of more practical devices such as the “Pebble” & Apple’s “Iwatch”. It started in 2010, the same way the 20th century began in 1908 with the advent of the automobile. Christopher P. Skroupa is the founder and CEO of Skytop Strategies, a global organizer of conferences. By Christopher P. Skroupa. His new toilet paper was composed of flat sheets. Innovation subsequently became “fashionable,” at least rhetorically, and no annual report left home without its liberal sprinkling of self-awarded adverbs and adjectives. Intended operationally in the sense of what job it is that the customer hires our goods and services to accomplish and also what do we stand for, what values bind us? According to the fabric’s creator, David Carroll, a cellphone case lined with the material could boost the phone’s battery charge by 10 to 15 percent over eight hours, using the heat absorbed from your trouser pocket! 1995 DVD (“digital versatile disc” or “digital video disc”) is a digital optical disc storage format invented and co-developed by Philips, Sony, Toshiba, and Panasonic. Both globalization and competitiveness are governed essentially by market forces that force the introduction of significant … On his “Inclined elevator,” passengers rode on an wedge-shaped supports attached to a conveyor belt at an incline of about 25 degrees. 1990 The Human Genome project starts to map all the genes in the human body – 40,000 of them. The first blog site was Links.net, created by Justin Hall, while he was a Swarthmore College student in 1994. The vaccine was made from killed polio virus. After many years of failed attempts and public ridicule, Goddard’s first successful rocket was launched on March 16, 1926 from a relative’s farm in Auburn, Massachusetts. The first commercial digital hearing aid was created by the Nicolet Corporation. The four worked to create an operating system for mobile devices which could be aware of both a user’s location and their personal preferences. Both globalization and competitiveness are governed essentially by market forces that force the introduction of significant … The future holds all sorts of wonders for us – but it is likely to look nothing like what we may think as the next major innovations may well render useless all that have come before them! Fast and free shipping free returns cash on delivery available on eligible purchase. Their “Wright Flyer” was a fabric-covered biplane with a wooden frame. Life expectancy is, likewise, far lower at 40-55 years depending on sex & location. This book argues that three powerful symbiotic forces (globalization, competitiveness, and governability) are disrupting business in the 21 st century, resulting in an impact on the economic and business environment far greater than the effects of any of these three individually. Demonstrable negative consequences inevitably unfold financially, reputationally and legally from governance failures and adverse environmental and social impact. The fist block being for the period 1850-1920 & the second from 1950 -2016. Based on the cartridge principle of the eight track system developed by RCA the cassette is reversible so that either side can be played. 1899 The paper clip was invented in 1899 by a Norwegian patent clerk called Johann Vaaler. So, it’s an oxymoron in that all companies operating now do so literally in 21st century conditions but some are more ideologically 21st century than others. 1975 Discovery of endorphins – natural pain killers in the brain. 1953 Transistors – although invented in 1947, the first commercial device to use a transistor was the Sonotone 1010 hearing aid, created in 1953. Widespread use of remotely piloted aircraft begins during the Vietnam War with deployment of 1000 AQM-34 Ryan Firebees which go on to fly more than 34,000 surveillance missions. 1895 Radio has its first broadcast thanks to Guglielmo Marconi who pioneered the development of the wireless telegraph in 1896 and long-distance radio communication in 1901. Karl Benz develops the first car which is marketed as a “Horseless carriage”, 1887 The Gramophone is invented by Emile Berliner, a German immigrant working in Washington D.C., who patented a successful system of sound recording. Is it any wonder that the satirical publication of the day, “Punch” in 1899 carried, in its look at the coming new century, the joke about a genius who asked “Isn’t there a clerk who can examine patents?” To which a boy replied “Quite unnecessary, Sir. The dawn of the space age has arrived! 2001 The robotic artificial heart, known as the abioCor was the size of a softball, was self-contained, and worked on a battery pack that the user could strap to his waist. 1976 Lithium batteries are developed. In 1919, Goddard wrote a scientific article, “A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes,” describing a high-altitude rocket; it was published in a Smithsonian report. Microsoft got IBM to agree that PC-DOS (the OS that IBM had as an option for its PCs) would not be an IBM exclusive. 1992 SMS messaging (Short Message System) was used for the first time when Neil Papworth, a 22-year-old test engineer for Sema Group in the UK (now Airwide Solutions), used a personal computer to send the text message “Merry Christmas” via the Vodafone network to the phone of Richard Jarvis who was at a party in Newbury. But innovation is not what you proclaim but what you do, and in business, it must be done repeatedly, sustainably and scalably. However, the company recognised that there would be low demand for such a computer camera, so the development activities switched to a focus on mobile (cellular) phones. Myriad approaches to innovation exist. TCP/IP was developed in 1978 and driven by Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf. In 2012 more than 4 billion videos are watched on Youtube per day! Our world is volatile and change is certain. The first commercial compact disc was produced on 17 August 1982. Commercial models were introduced in Japan by NTT on December 3, 1979. Technological developments and climate change have been two elemental forces that have taken the century with a storm. Two years later, in 1989, the behind-the-ear (BTE) digital hearing aid was launched. He demonstrated it at the New York exposition in the Crystal Palace in a dramatic, death-defying presentation in 1854, and the first such passenger elevator was installed at 488 Broadway in New York City, on March 23, 1857. There was no fanfare in the global press. Others want to build or buy the capability. 1965 The first computer “Mouse” was developed for use in radar control desks by a team led by Rainer Mallebrein at Telefunken Konstanz for the German Bundesanstalt für Flugsicherung as part of their TR 86 process computer system with its SIG 100-86vector graphics terminal. My instinct is to look at those three things every company gets to make choices about—resources, processes and values—through a fresh lens. This was a project of Thomas Edison that was organized and managed by his partner, Edward Johnson. The hearing aid contained a body-worn processor that had a hardwire connection with an ear mounted transducer. All of this changed during a seventy year period that saw the fabric of society transformed to an environment that features electric light, automobiles, steam ships, national rail networks, telegraphic communications, personal photography, moving pictures & household radio receivers…. Thinking teeth. There is an unconfirmed story that Hopper determined that an error in the early Mark II computer was caused by a moth that was trapped in it; she then coined the term “Computer bug.”. On December 17, 1903, the “Flyer” flew for 12 seconds and for a distance of 120 feet (37 m). So, it’s essential to have an innovation agenda, a strategic and tactical plan, even if the current core business appears healthy. Ultimately, the VHS system won the war – not because it was technically superior (it wasn’t) but because it had more variety in its range of recorded programming to view. The foundation of electric motor invention was only laid after battery, magnetic fields from the electric currents and electromagnet made their way into the world. Get ready because you might become a designer quicker than you think! What does that mean for shareholders? The TCP/IP protocol has two big advantages in comparison with earlier network protocols: It is reliable & it’s easily expandable. Software (Apps) – Think of Uber, AirBnB – how else will these types of apps impact on day to day life? Geiger’s work helped Rutherford discover that radioactive elements can transform into other elements and that atoms have a nucleus]. He even photographed part of his own skeleton. Karen Morris: We see continuity and dramatic disparity. Johnson at the Royal Radar Establishment, Malvern, UK, with a published paper on touch screen technology for air traffic control in an article published in 1968. It became the century … 1955 Polio is finally beaten by Jonas Salk (1914-1995) – a research physician who formulated a vaccine against the devastating disease. With the scarcity of resources as a result of the war, combined with a distrust of nations outside our own, “Invention” was not likely to be topmost in the collective psyche. It’s advantage being that it could transmit more data, faster than traditional copper cable. 1956 The computer arrives – although computers were first developed in the late 1930’s they were far too expensive & bulky for serious commercial consideration. Four technology experts joined forces to establish Android Inc. of Palo Alto, CA: (Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears and Chris White). This discovery of conduction became known as the Edison effect. Previously, Karen served as a strategic advisor at DUAL International Limited, the world’s largest international underwriting agency, and as Chief Innovation Officer at AIG. It has been a blessing for students and job seekers who move cities or countries for career prospects. 1962 The LED (light-emitting diode) is developed & begins to usher in a new era in lighting. 1957 Casio releases the world’s first digital watch – the Swiss didn’t see this one coming! This week, the Darden Leadership Speaker Series kicked off with a talk by Dominic Barton, Global Managing Partner of McKinsey & Company. 1962 The first “active” (as in amplifying and retransmitting incoming signals, rather than passively bouncing them back to Earth) communications satellite – Telstar is launched. This first motorcycle was a coal-powered, two-cylinder, steam-driven unit that was developed by the American inventor Sylvester Howard Roper. 1994 Blogging surfaces for the first time. 1895 X-rays are discovered by Wilhelm Konrad von Roentgen (1845-1923). 1984 3D printing was invented in 1984 by Chuck Hull of 3D Systems Corporation. 1991 The Internet arrives with a whimper. The new “trends” concern previously inconceivable velocity and scale of innovation-led change. Bell Labs announces the invention of the first practical silicon solar cell. While the Nicolet Corporation’s hearing aid was not publicly successful and the company shortly folded, it was able to start a competition between companies to create more effective hearing aids. Trend has already begun to change substantially. 1855 The electric motor is first developed. Disruptive Forces Blow Up 21st Century Business Models. Before Gayetty’s invention, people tore pages out of mail order catalogues – before catalogues were common, leaves were used. Office environments that have too many fixed spaces, such as cellular offices and f… George Eastman invented the flexible film roll in 1889 & the medium started to become widely used as a result. This reservoir would hold enough ink for a few pages of writing. 1964 UAV (Drones) Used for first time. Morris: I believe I was the first person in insurance to have the title Chief Innovation Officer (a title freighted with problems, but that is another story). In 1914, Goddard received two U.S. patents: for liquid-fuelled rockets and for two- to three-stage rockets that use solid fuel. Coextensively, globalization and hyper-connectivity have shrunk our world and woven global economies together inextricably, challenging the very possibility of a purely local business. Previous cameras required the user to insert a roll of film & “wind” it on to the camera’s film spool. Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web. These days, sharing information is most often done over an Ethernet (usually referred to as a LAN – Local Area Network); from the smallest office to the largest corporation, from the single schoolroom to the largest university campus, Ethernet is clearly the networking technology of choice. 1B).Over the 19th century both the model- and the charcoal-based records show sharp increases in biomass burning (Fig. The telephony market is shaken to its core as traditional Telcos revenues plummet. Today we can enjoy 3D printed buildings, cars, firearms, medical prosthesis, cloths, organs and body parts, amongst others. Elisha Otis introduced the safety elevator, which prevented the fall of the elevator cab if the cable broke. For all our sakes, for future generations and for the planet, I must trust that unalloyed shareholder value and the self-interest of the pure bottom line have no place in the investment architecture or behavior of the 21st Century company. Arrau was invited to the Langenhagen plant to press the start button. Although calculators had been around for almost a decade they were large, cumbersome & expensive. 1857 Joseph Gayetty invented toilet paper. The first radio transmission across an ocean (the Atlantic Ocean) occurred on December 12, 1901. The user is not required to handle unruly tape ends and thread the tape through the machine before use, making the medium of magnetic tape more friendly to everyday users. Walter Alcock (of Great Britain) later developed toilet paper on a roll (instead of in flat sheets). RFID stands for Radio-Frequency IDentification. 2015 Nano technologies start to result in real world applications such as; brain implants & contact lenses with the ability to communicate through smartphones. 2003 Skype launched to take advantage of VOIP (Voice Over Internet Protocol) – allowing people to “Phone” anyone with a Skype account, anywhere in the world, for free. The indisputably most impactful trend, unsurprisingly, is the tsunami of technological innovation. That is an incredible amount of groundbreaking change. 1883 Thomas Alva Edison discovered that electrons will flow from one metal conductor to another through a vacuum . Occulus Rift, a leader in the field, was recently acquired by FB & Mark Zuckerberg is well known for picking future trends. 1867 The first typewriter was invented by the American printer and editor Christopher Latham Sholes (Feb. 14, 1819 – Feb. 17, 1890). This design is somewhat similar to the type still used today. 1969 The first videocassette prototype is demonstrated by Sony. The dry cell battery was developed by Georges Leclanche of France, who used an electrolyte in the form of a paste. 1989 MP3 digital recording format is developed. Although it was large and heavy compared to today’s laptops, with a tiny 5″ CRT monitor, it had a near-revolutionary impact on business, as professionals were able to take their computer and data with them for the first time. 1950 Micro surgery is developed for inner ear operations. 1971 First email program is developed by Ray Tomlinson. Then came Myspace, followed in 2004 by Facebook. Compared with the Industrial Revolution, we estimate that this change is happening ten times faster and at 300 times the scale, or roughly 3,000 times the impact. Following ArtistShare, more crowdfunding sites started to appear on the web such as IndieGoGo (2008), Kickstarter (2009), and Microventures (2010). More specifically, TCP/IP dictates how information should be packaged (turned into bundles of information called packets), sent, and received, as well as how to get to its destination. X-rays were soon used as an important diagnostic tool in medicine. (Portio Research). ), I applaud the elevation in recent decades of investor and stakeholder regard for ESG. 1956 Allen Newell, J. C. Shaw, and Herbert A. Simon pioneered the newly created artificial intelligence field with the Logic Theory Machine, followed by the General Problem Solver in 1957. And in our Information Age, ultimately, almost no sector will be immune to the transformative force of Big Data and analytics, from pharma to farms; neither will many workers, as these trends compound with advances in AI, advanced automation and robotics to displace a plethora of human industrial and professional actors. They were introduced in Scandinavia in 1981, in Chicago, USA, on October 13, 1983 (by Motorola), and in Europe in the late 1980’s. Vacuum tubes strengthened weak audio signals and allowed these signals to be superimposed on radio waves. This is a an improved voltaic cell with a cylindrical zinc shell (the zinc acts as both the cathode and the container) that is lined with an ammonium chloride (the electrolyte) saturated material (and not a liquid). Following the Industrial Revolution (late 18th–early 19th centuries), human population expanded rapidly (Fig. As a Digital Nomad my hours do not reflect a traditional business but I am online most days so don’t be shy – get in touch! Fire fighting – You need a lot of water to put out a sizable blaze, and the chemicals used in fire extinguishers can be toxic (halons, the most effective chemical fire suppressant, create holes in the ozone layer). Skroupa: You have described the 21st century organization as a “happy oxymoron.” Could you explain what you mean by that, and how we may be departing from a century of established management science? The first mass-produced microprocessor-based portable computer was the Osborne 1 in 1981, which used the CP/M operating system. Bill Gates and Paul Allen wrote a BASIC compiler for the Altair and formed Micro-soft. Designed to record video material on magnetic tape, the first practical video tape recorder, using transverse tape head scanning, was developed by Ampex Corporation. In mid-1998, the South Korean company licensed the players for North American distribution to Eiger Labs, which rebranded them as the EigerMan F10 and F20. The most common obstacles arise if the company cannot make “space” deliberately and uncompromisingly for innovation: temporal, mental and even physical space. Looking at all of these inventions you can start to get an idea as to the scope of change that society went through during this seventy year period. A new book by McKinsey and Company outlines four major forces that will transform the world of the mid 21 st century. 1963 RFID is invented. For some outsourcing innovation, such as open innovation or using an innovation agency may work. She is a Senior Fellow of The Institute for Innovation in Large Organizations with over 25 years’ experience in law, management, underwriting and multinational business. 1850 The Telegraph – developed in the 1830s and 1840s by Samuel Morse (1791-1872) and other inventors, the telegraph revolutionized long-distance communication by way of its capacity to speed up the communication process which, until this point, was reliant on horse drawn transportation. 1970 Computerised Tomography (CT scan) is developed enabling medical practitioners to look at soft tissues in the body without invasion surgery. 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